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tiii^e-T I \l>. "1 S. "> li> 



Satiatti College Iiititats 

THE GIFT OF 
GINN AND COMPANY 






32044 097 077 713 



SELECTED LETTERS 



OF 



CICERO 



EDITED BY 



HUBERT McNeill POTEAT, Ph.D. 



PROFESSOR OF LATIN 
WAKE FOREST COLLEGE 



D. C. HEATH & CO., PUBLISHERS 

BOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGO 



■Lo(/ic-^^.\0 \0.^ ^.o, I Q 



V 



HARW-vO COLLEGE LIBRARY 

GIFT OF 

tai'Ni^ :; COMPANY 

MARCH 17, 1927 



Copyright, 1916, 
By D. C. Heath & Co. 

I G 6 



FILIO CARISSIMO 



PREFACE 

In editing these selections from Cicero's correspondence, 
I have attempted to meet the needs of the Freshman who, 
when he enters college, is suffering from indifferent teaching. 
This statement is made without the slightest desire to cast 
aspersions upon the excellent work in Latin done in many 
schools. I am firmly convinced, however, from my own 
experience and from the testimony of other men, that Latin 
is poorly taught in the majority of our Southern high schools 
and preparatory schools. No one who has had charge of 
Freshman classes needs argument from a fellow-sufferer to 
prove that this is true. The notes in this volume are, there- 
fore, quite full. The introduction has been made very brief, 
because of the well-nigh universal habit among students of 
skipping that portion of a textbook altogether. Subjects 
usually treated at length in introductions are here set forth 
at proper points in the commentary. 

The selections which appear in this book were made with 
a view to throwing light upon Cicero's habits and character, 
and upon the life in which he moved. Although this basis of 
choice coincides with that adopted by practically all recent 
editors, yet there are several letters presented here which are 
not found in the editions in general use at the present time. 

The Teubner text (Miiller) is employed, with only a few 
variations. Grammatical references are to Gildersleeve-Lodge, 
Allen and Greenough, and Bennett. 

I desire to acknowledge my indebtedness to the scholarly 



vi PREFACE 

editions of Tyrrell (London, 1907) and Abbott, to Shuck- 
burgh's translation, and to Sihler's " Cicero of Arpinum." 
My thanks are especially due to Professor Charles Knapp, 
whose mature and generous counsel, given alike in the reading 
of the manuscript and of the proof, has been invaluable. 

H. M. P. 

Wake Forest, N.C, 
May 15, 1916. 



ORDER OF THE LETTERS 



This 
Edition 


Usual 
Arrangement 


This 
Edition 


Usual 
Arrangement 


I 


Att. 


1.7 


XXIX 


Att 


4.1 


II 


it 


1.9 


XXX 


Fam. 


7.26 


III 


(( 


1.2 


XXXI 


Att. 


4.4a 


IV 


Fam. 


5.7 


XXXII 


u 


4.4b 


V 


Att 


1.15 


XXXIII 


u 


4.5 


VI 


ii 


2.8 


XXXIV 


ii 


4.8 


VII 


u 


2.10 


XXXV 


Fam. 


7.23 


VIII 


(( 


2.11 


XXXVI 


ii 


7.1 


IX 


ii 


2.18 


XXXVII 


Q. 


2.9 


X 


it 


2.19 


XXXVIII 


Fam. 


7.5 


XI 


u 


2.23 


XXXIX 


Fam. 


7.6 


XII 


it 


2.25 


XL 


ii 


7.7 


XIII 


ii 


3.3 


XLI 


Att 


4.14 


XIV 


ii 


3.5 


XLII 


Fam. 


7.16 


XV 


ii 


3.4 


XLIII 


ii 


7.10 


XVI 


u 


3.6 


XLIV 


ii 


7.12 


XVII 


Fam. 


14.4 


XLV 


Att 


5. 1 


XVIII 


Att. 


3. 12 


XLVI 


Fam. 


2. 11 


XIX 


ii 


3.13 


XLVII 


Att. 


6.4 


XX 


ii 


3. 18 


XLVIII 


Fam. 


16.1 


XXI 


n 


3. 19 


XLIX 


Att 


8.13 


xxii 


ii 


3.20 


L 


Fam. 


14. 12 


XXIII 


Fam. 


14.2 


LI 


tt 


14. 15 


XXIV 


Att. 


3.22 


LI I 


u 


14.20 


XXV 


ii 


3.25 


LIII 


« 


9.18 


XXVI 


ii 


3.26 


LIV 


it 


9.20 


XXVII 


Fam. 


5.4 


LV 


ii 


4.4 


XXVIII 


Att. 


3.27 


LVI 


it 


4. 14 



Vll 



VUl 



ORDER OF THE LETTERS 



This 


Usual 


This 


Usual 


Edition 


Arrangement 


Edition 


Arrangement 


LVII 


Att. 12. 15 


LXV 


Att. 13. 52 


LVIII 


" 12. 16 


LXVI 


Fam. 7. 31 


LIX 


Fam. 4. 5 


LXVII 


" 6. 15 


LX 


Att 12.32 


LXVIII 


" 7. 22 


LXI 


. Fam. 4. 6 


LXIX 


Att. 16. 5 


LXII 


Att. 13. 13 


LXX 


Fam. 11. 28 


LXIII 


Fam. 9. 8 


LXXI 


" 16. 21 


LXIV 


" 7. 24 


LXXII 


«* 9. 24 



Usual 
Arrangement 


Att 


1. 


2 




1. 


7 




1. 


9 




1. 


15 




2. 


8 




2. 


10 




2. 


11 




2. 


18 




2. 


19 




2. 


23 




2. 


25 




3. 


3 




3. 


4 




3. 


5 




3. 


6 




3. 


12 




3. 


13 




3. 


18 




3. 


19 




3. 


20 



EPISTULAE AD ATTICUM 



This 
Edition 

III 

I 

II 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 

XV 

XIV 

XVI 

XVIII 

XIX 

XX 

XXI 

XXII 



Usual 


This 


Arrangement 


Edition 


Att 3. 22 


XXIV 


3.25 


XXV 


3.26 


XXVI 


3.27 


XXVIII 


4.1 


XXIX 


4.4a 


XXXI 


4.4b 


XXXII 


4.5 


XXXIII 


4.8 


XXXIV 


4.14 


XLI 


5.1 


XLV 


6.4 


XLVII 


8. 13 


XLIX 


12. 15 


LVII 


12. 16 


LVIII 


12.32 


LX 


13. 13 


LXII 


13. 52 


LXV 


16.5 


LXIX 



ORDER OF THE LETTERS 



IX 



EPISTULAE AD IFAMILIARES 



Usual 


This 


Usual 


This 


Arrangement 


Edition 


Arrangement 


Edition 


Fam. 2. 11 


XLVI 


7.23 


XXXV 


4.4 


LV 


7.24 


LXIV 


4.5 


LIX 


7.26 


XXX 


4.6 


LXI 


7.31 


LXVI 


4. 14 


LVI 


9.8 


LXIII 


5.4 


XXVII 


9. 18 


LIII 


5.7 


IV 


9.20 


LIV 


6.15 


LXVII 


9.24 


TXXII 


7.1 


XXXVI 


11.28 


LXX 


7.5 


XXXVIII 


14.2 


XXIII 


7.6 


XXXIX 


14.4 


XVII 


7.7 


XL 


14.12 


L 


7.10 


XLIII 


14. 15 


LI 


7.12 


XLIV 


14.20 


LII 


7.16 


XLII 


16.1 


XLVIII 


7.22 


LXVIII 


16.21 


LXXI 



EPISTULAE AD QUINTUM FRATREM 



Usual 
Arrangement 

Q. 2.9 



This 
Edition 

XXXVII 



INTRODUCTION 

1. Chronology of Cicero^ s Life. 

. io6. Born at Arpinum, Jan. 3. 

81. First extant speech {Fro Quinctio). 

79-77. Studied in Athens, Rhodes, and Asia 

Minor. 
77 (?). Married Terentia. 
76. Quaestor in Sicily. 
69. Curule aedile; 
66. Praetor urbanus. 
63. Consul, with C. Antonius. — The conspiracy 

of Catiline. 
58 (Apr.)-57 (Aug.). Period of exile. 
51-50. Proconsul in Cilicia. 
49. Joined Pompey in Epirus. 
48. Returned to Italy, after the battle of Pharsa- 

lus. 
47. Pardoned by Caesar. 
46. Divorced Terentia and married Publilia. 
45 (Feb.). Death of Tullia. 
44. Murder of Caesar, March 15. 
44-43. The Philippics, attacking Antony. 
43. Proscribed, and murdered near Formiae by 

Antony's order, Dec. 17. 

2. The Letters (68-43). There are extant about seven 
hundred and seventy-five letters from the hand of Cicero, and 
nearly a hundred from various correspondents, among whom 
were Pompey, Cato Uticensis, M. Brutus, Caesar, and Lepi- 
dus. These letters are grouped in four divisions, as follows : 
Epistulae ad Atticum^ 16 books ; Epistulae ad Familiares, 

xi 



xii INTRODUCTION 

1 6 bcx)ks ; Epistulae ad Quinium Fratrem, 3 books ; Epistulae 
ad M, Brutum, 2 books. 

Although Cicero realized that some of his correspondence 
would be published, yet he had no thought of a general 
edition ; hence, the majority of the Letters possess the charm 
of absolute spontaneity and freedom from restraint. The 
collections were made by Tullius Tiro, Cicero's accomplished 
secretary, and T. Pomponius Atticus, his dear friend, and 
were published after his death. 

3. Letter Writing, Brief letters, and particularly letters 
to which an immediate reply was desired, were written with 
a stilus upon wax tablets {tabellae ceratae, or, merely, tabellae, 
or codiciili). The leaves of the tablets were tied together 
with a thread (Jinuni)^ wax {cera) was dropped on the knot, 
and the writer's seal (signutn) was impressed on the wax (see 
In Catilinam 3. 5). The recipient of such a letter might, 
after reading the message, erase it, write his answer on the 
same tablets, and send them back by the same messenger 
(tabellarius). He might, of course, if he chose, file the tablets 
away for future reference, and reply on separate tabellae. 

For longer letters, however, and for those sent to a dis- 
tance, papyrus sheets were commonly used. The message 
was written with a reed-pen {calamus^ and ink (atramentum), 
made of soot and gum. The letter was then rolled up, tied 
and sealed, with the address of the person to whom it was to 
be carried written on the outside. A messenger could usually 
cover from thirty-five to forty-five miles a day. 

The wealthy Roman gentleman employed, as a rule, an 
amanuensis, to whom he dictated his letters. Cicero, how- 
ever, although Tiro served him as secretary, wrote many 
letters with his own hand. In fact, it is very probable that 
the majority of the Epistulae ad Atticum and ad Quintum 
Fratrem were written by Cicero himself. 



SELECTED LETTERS 
OF CICERO 



CICERO'S LETTERS 

I. Ad Atticum i. 7 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

Apud matrem recte est, eaque nobis curaest. L. 
Cincio HS XXCD constitui me curaturum Idibus 
Febr. Tu velim ea, quae nobis emisse et parasse 
scribis, des operam ut quam primum habeamus et 
velim cogites,, id quod mihi pollicitus es, quem ad modum 
bibliothecam nobis conficere possis. Onmem spem 
delectationis nostrae, quam, cum in otium venerimus, 
habere volumus, in tua humanitate positam habemus. 

n. Ad Atticum i. 9 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

Nimium raro nobis abs te litterae adferuntur, cumi 
et multo tu facilius reperias, qui Romam proficiscan- 
tur, quam ego,, qui Athenas, et certius tibi sit me esse 
Romae quam mihi te Athenis. Itaque propter hanc 
dubitationem meam brevior haec ipsa epistula est, 
quod, cum incertus essem, ubi esses, nolebam ilium 
nostrum famiUarem sermonem in alienas manus de- 
venire. 

Signa Megarica et Hermas, de quibus ad me scrip- 2 
sisti, vehementer exspecto. Quicquid eiusdem generis 
habebis, dignum Academia tibi quod videbitur, ne 



2 CICERO'S LETTERS 

dubitaris mittere et arcae nostrae confidito. Genus 
hoc est voluptatis meae; quae yv/jLvaa-iayBTj maxima 
sunt, ea quaero. Lentulus naves suas pollicetur. Peto 
abs te, ut haec diligenter cures. Thyillus te rogat et 
ego eius rogatu l^vfio\7nSa)v irdrpia, 

ni. Ad Atticum 1.2 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

1 L. Julio Caesare, C. Marcio Figulo consulibus filiolo 
me auctum scito salva Terentia. Abs te tam diu nihil 
litterarum ! Ego de meis ad te rationibus scripsi antea 
diligenter. Hoc tempore Catilinam, competitorem 
nostrum, defendere cogitamus. ludices habemus, quos 
voluimus, summa accusatoris voluntate. Spero, si 
absolutus erit, coniunctiorem ilium nobis fore in ra- 
tione petitionis; sin aliter accident, humaniter fere- 

amus. Tuo adventu nobis opus est maturo ; namprorsus 
summa hominum est opinio tuos familiares nobiles 
homines adversarios honori nostro fore. Ad eorum 
voluntatem mihi conciliandam maximo te mihi usui 
fore video. Quare lanuario mense, ut constituisti, 
cura ut Romae sis. 

IV. Ad Familiares 5. 7 

M. TULLIUS M. F. CICERO S. D. CN. POMPEIO CN. F. 

MAGNO IMPERATORI. 

1 S. T. E. Q. V. B. E. Ex litteris tuis, quas publice 
misisti, cepi una cum omnibus incredibilem volup- 
tatem ; tantam enim spem oti ostendisti, quantam ego 
semper omnibus te uno fretus pollicebar. Sed hoc 
scito, tuos veteres hostis, novos amicos vehementer 



CICERO'S LETTERS 3 

litteris perculsos atque ex magna spe deturbatos iacere. 
Ad me autem litteras quas misisti, quamquam exiguam2 
significationem tuae erga me voluntatis habebant, ta- 
men mihi scito iucundas fuisse; nulla enim re tam 
laetari soleo quam meorum officiorum conscientia; 
quibus si quando non mutue respondetur, apud me 
plus offici residere facillime patior. lUud non dubito, 
quin, si te mea summa erga te studia parum mihi 
adiunxerint, res publica nos inter nos conciliatura con- 
iuncturaque sit. Ac ne ignores, quid ego in tuis litte-3 
ris desiderarim, scribam aperte, sicut et mea natura et 
nostra amicitia postulat. Res eas gessi, quarum ali- 
quam in tuis litteris et nostrae necessitudinis et rei p. 
causa gratulationem exspectavi ; quam ego abs te prae- 
termissam esse arbitror, quod vererere, ne cuius ani- 
mum offenderes. Sed scito ea, quae nos pro salute 
patriae gessimus, orbis terrae iudicio ac testimonio 
comprobari ; quae, cum veneris, tan to consiUo tantaque 
animi magnitudine a me gesta esse cognosces, ut tibi 
multo maiori, quam Africanus fuit, me non multo mi- 
norem quam Laelium facile et in re p. et in amicitia 
adiunctum esse patiare. 

V. Ad Atticum i. 15 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

Asiam Quinto, suavissimo fratri, obtigisse audisti. 1 
Non enim dubito, quin celerius tibi hoc rumor quam 
ulUus nostrum Ktterae nuntiarint. Nunc, quoniam et 
laudis avidissimi semper fuimus et praeter ceteros 
<f>i\e\X7jve; et sumus et habemur et multorum odia 



4 CICERO'S LETTERS 

atque inimicitias rei publicae causa suscepimus, *7rai/- 
Toirfi ap€Tr]<; fii/jLvija-fceo ' curaque, effice, ut ab omni- 
2 bus et laudemur et amemur. His de rebus plura ad 
te in ea epistula scribam, quam ipsi Quinto dabo. Tu 
me velim certiorem facias, quid de meis mandatis 
egeris atque etiam quid de tuo negotio ; nam, ut Brun- 
disio profectus es, nuUae mihi abs te sunt redditae 
litterae. Valde aveo scire, quid agas. Idibus Martiis. 

VI. Ad Atticum 2. 8 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

1 Epistulam cum a te avide exspectarem ad vesperum, 
ut soleo, ecce tibi nuntius pueros venisse Roma ! Voco, 
quaero, ecquid litterarum. Negant. *Quid ais?' in- 
quam, ^nihilne a Pomponio?' Perterriti voce et vultu 
confessi sunt se accepisse, sed excidisse in via. Quid 
quaeris? permoleste tuli; nulla enim abs te per hos 
dies epistula inanis aliqua re utili et suavi venerat. 
Nunc, si quid in ea epistula, quam ante diem XVI Kal. 
Maias dedisti, fuit historia dignum, scribe quam pri- 
mum, ne ignoremus; sin nihil praeter iocationem, 
redde id ipsum. 

Et scito Curionem adulescentem venisse ad me 
salutatum. Valde eius sermo de Publio cum tuis lit- 
teris congruebat ; ipse vero mirandum in modum ^reges 
odisse superbos\ Peraeque narrabat incensam esse 
iuventutem neque ferre haec posse. Bene habemus. 
Nos, si in his spes est, opinor, aliud agamus. Ego me do 
historiae. Quamquam licet me Saufeium putes esse. 
Nihil me est inertius. 



CICERO'S LETTERS 5 

Sed cognosce itinera nostra, ut statuas, ubi nos2 
visurus sis. In Formianum volumus venire Parilibus; 
inde, quoniam putas praetermittendum nobis esse hoc 
tempore Cratera ilium delicatum, Kal. Mails de For- 
miano proficiscemur, ut Anti simus a. d. V Nonas 
Maias. Ludi enim Anti futuri sunt a IIII ad pr. No- 
nas Maias. Eos TuUia spectare vult. Inde cogito in 
Tusculanum, deinde Arpinum, Romam ad Kal. lunias. 
Te aut in Formiano aut Anti aut in Tusculano cura ut 
videamus. Epistulam superiorem restitue nobis et 
adpinge aliquid novi. 

VII. Ad Atticum 2. lo 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

Volo ames meam cons tan tiam. Ludos Anti spectare 
non placet ; est enim vttoo-oXoikoVj cum velim vitare 
omnium deliciarum suspicionem, repente ava<t>a{p€(T6ai 
non solum delicate, sed etiam inepte peregrinantem. 
Quare usque ad Nonas Maias te in Formiano exspectabo. 
Nunc fac ut sciam, quo die te visuri simus. Ab Appi 
!Foro hora quarta. Dederam aliam paulo ante a Tri- 
bus Tabernis. 

VIII. Ad Atticum 2. 1 1 

CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

Narro tibi, plane relegatus mihi videor, posteaquam 1 
in Formiano sum. Dies enim nuUus erat, Anti cum 
essem, quo die non melius scirem, Romae quid agere- 
tur, quam ii, qui erant Romae. Etenim litterae tuae, 
non solum quid Romae, sed etiam quid in re publica. 



6 CICERO'S LETTERS 

neque solum quid fieret, verum etiam quid futurum 
esset, indicabant. Nunc, nisi si quid ex praetereunte 
viatore exceptum est, scire nihil possumus. Quare, 
quamquam iam te ipsum exspecto, tamen isti puero, 
quern ad me statim iussi recurrere, da ponderosam ali- 
quam epistulam plenam onmium non modo actorum, 
sed etiam opinionum tuarum, ac diem, quo Roma sis 
2exiturus, cura ut sciam. Nos in Formiano esse vo- 
lumus usque ad prid. Nonas Maias. Eo si ante earn 
diem non veneris, Romae te fortasse videbo; nam 
Arpinum quid ego te in vi tern ? 

* Tprj')(el\ aX>C ayaOf) /covpoTp6<f>o<;^ out ap eytoye 
^9 yaLrj<; SvvafiaL yXvfcepcorepov aWo ISea-Oai,* 

Haec igitur. Cura, ut valeas. 

IX. Ad Atticum 2. 18 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

1 Accepi aliquot epistulas tuas; ex quibus intellexi, 
quam suspenso animo et soUicito scire averes, quid 
esset novi. Tenemur undique neque iam, quo minus 
serviamus, recusamus, sed mortem et eiectionem quasi 
maiora timemus, quae multo sunt minora. Atque hie 
status, qui nunc est, una voce omnium gemitur neque 
verbo cuiusquam sublevatur. S/cotto? est, ut suspicor, 
ilKs, qui tenent, nuUam cuiquam largitionem relinquere. 
Unus loquitur et palam adversatur adulescens Curio. 
Huic plausus maximi, consalutatio forensis perhonorifica, 
signa praeterea benevolentiae permulta a bonis imper- 
tiuntur. Fufium clamoribus et conviciis et sibilis con- 



CICERO'S LETTERS 7 

sectantur. His ex rebus non spes, sed dolor est maior, 
cum videas civitatis voluntatem solutam, virtutem 
alligatam. Ac, ne forte quaeras fcara XevTov de singulis 2 
rebus, universa res eo est deducta, spes ut nulla sit 
aliquando non modo privatos, verum etiam magistratus 
liberos fore. Hac tamen in oppressione sermo in circulis 
dumtaxat et in conviviis est liberior quam fuit. Vincere 
incipit timorem dolor, sed ita, ut omnia sint plenissima 
desperationis. Habet etiam Campana lex exsecrationem 
candidatorum, si mentionem in contione fecerint, quo 
aliter ager possideatur atque ut ex legibus luliis. Non 
dubitant iurare ceteri; Laterensis existimatur laute 
fecisse, quod tribunatum pi. petere destitit, ne iuraret. 

Sed de re publica non libet plura scribere. Displi-s 
ceo mihi nee sine summo scribo dolore. Me tueor ut 
oppressis omnibus non demisse, ut tantis rebus gestis 
parum fortiter. A Caesare valde liberaliter invitor in 
legationem illam, sibi ut sim legatus, atque etiam libera 
legatio voti causa datur. Sed haec et praesidi apud 
pudorem Pulchelli non habet satis et a fratris adventu 
me ablegat, ilia et munitior est et non impedit, quo 
minus adsim, cum velim. Hanc ego teneo, sed usurum 
me non puto, neque tamen scit quisquam. Non lubet 
fugere, aveo pugnare. Magna sunt hominum studia. 
Sed nihil adfirmo ; tu hoc silebis. 

De Statio manu misso et non nullis aliis rebus angor4 
equidem, sed iam prorsus occallui. Tu vellem ego vel 
cuperem adesses; nee mihi consilium nee consolatio 
deesset. Sed ita te para, ut, si inclamaro, advoles. 



8 CICERO'S LETTERS 

X. Ad Atticum 2. 19 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

1 Multa me sollicitant et ex rei publicae tanto motu et ex 
iis periculis, quae mihi ipsi intenduntur et sescenta sunt ; 
sed mihi nihil est molestius quam Statium manu missum : 

* Nee meum imperium, ac mitto imperium, non simulta- 

tem meam 
Revereri saltem ! ' 

Nee quid faciam, scio, neque tantum est in re, quantus 
est sermo. Ego autem ne irasci possum quidem iis, 
quos valde amo; tantum doleo ac mirifice quidem. 
Cetera in magnis rebus. Minae Clodi contentionesque, 
quae mihi proponuntur, modice me tangunt ; etenim vel 
subire eas videor mihi summa cum dignitate vel declinare 
nulla cum molestia posse. Dices fortasse : * Dignitatis 
aXi<; tamquam S/ouoV, saluti, si me amas, consule.* Me 
miserum ! cur non ades ? nihil prof ecto te praeteriret. 
Ego fortasse TV(f>\(i}TTa) et nimium to) /ca\q Trpoa-TreirovOa, 
% Scito nihil umquam fuisse tarn infame, tarn turpe, tarn 
peraeque omnibus generibus, ordinibus, aetatibus oflen- 
sum quam hunc statum, qui nunc est, magis mehercule, 
quam vellem, non modo quam putarem. Populares isti 
iam etiam modestos homines sibilare docuerunt. Bibu- 
lus in caelo est, nee, quare, scio, sed ita laudatur, quasi 

^Unus homo nobis cunctando restituit rem.' 

Pompeius, nostri amores, quod mihi summo dolori est, 
ipse se adflixit. Neminem tenent voluntate; ne metu 
necesse sit iis uti, vereor. Ego autem neque pugno cum 



CICERO'S LETTERS o 

ilia causa propter illam amicitiam neque approbo, ne 
omnia improbem, quae antea gessi; utor via. Populis 
sensus maxime theatro et spectaculis perspectus est; 
nam gladiatoribus qua dominus qua advocati sibilis 
conscissi ; ludis Apollinaribus Diphilus tragoedus in 
nostrum Pompeium petulanter invectus est : 

* Nostra miseria tu es magnus — ' 

milieus coactus est dicere ; 

^Eandem virtu tem istam veniet tempus cum graviter 
gemes' 

totius theatri clamore dixit itemque cetera. Nam et 
eius modi sunt ii versus, uti in tempus ab inimico Pompei 
scripti esse videantur : 

*Si neque leges neque mores cogunt — ', 

et cetera magno cum fremitu et clamore sunt dicta. 
Caesar cum venisset mortuo plausu, Curio filius est 
insecutus. Huic ita plausum est, ut salva re publica 
Pompeio plaudi solebat. Tuljt Caesar graviter. Lit- 
terae Capuam ad Pompeium volare dicebantur. Inimici 
erant equitibus, qui Curioni stantes plauserant, hostes 
omnibus; Rosciae legi, etiam frumentariae minita- 
bantur. Sane res erat perturbata. Equidem ma- 
lueram, quod erat susceptUm ab illis, silentio transiri, sed 
vereor, ne non liceat. Non ferunt homines, quod videtur 
esse tamen ferendum ; sed est iam una vox omnium magis 
odio firmata quam praesidio. 

Noster autem Publius mihi minitatur, inimicus est. 4 
Impendet negotium, ad quod tu scilicet advolabis. 



lo CICERO'S LETTERS 

Videor mihi nostrum ilium consularem exercitum bo- 
norum omnium, etiam satis bonorum habere firmissi- 
mum. Pompeius significat studium erga me non me- 
diocre; idem adfirmat verbum de me ilium non esse 
facturum; in quo non me ille fallit, sed ipse fallitur. 
Cosconio mortuo sum in eius locum invitatus. Id erat 
vocari in locum mortui. Nihil me turpius apud homines 
fuisset neque vero ad istam ipsam aa<^dXeLav quicquam 
alienius. Sunt enim illi apud bonos invidiosi, ego apud 
improbos meam retinuissem invidiam, alienam adsump- 
ssissem. Caesar me sibi vult esse legatum. Honestior 
declinatio haec periculi; sed ego hoc non repudio. 
Quid ergo est? pugnare malo. Nihil tamen certi. 
Iterum dico ' utinam adesses ! ' Sed tamen, si erit necesse, 
arcessemus. Quid aliud? quid? Hoc opinor. Certi 
sumus perisse omnia ; quid enim a/ctci^ofieOa tam diu ? 
Sed haec scripsi properans et mehercule timide. Post- 
hac ad te aut, si perfidelem habebo, cui dem, scribam 
plane omnia, aut, si obscure scribam, tu tamen intel- 
leges. In iis epistulis me LaeKum, te Furium faciam ; 
cetera erunt iv alviyfioU. Hie Caecilium colimus et ob- 
servamus diligenter. Edicta Bibuli audio ad te missa. 
lis ardet dolore et ira noster Pompeius. 

XI. Ad Atticum 2. 23 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

1 Numquam ante arbitror te epistulam meam legisse 
nisi mea manu scriptam. Ex eo coUigere poteris, 
quanta occupatione distinear. Nam, cum vacui tem- 
poris nihil haberem, et cum recreandae voculae causa 



CICERO'S LETTERS 1 1 

necesse esset mihi ambulare, haec dicta vi ambulans. 

Primum igitur illud te scire volo, Sampsiceramum, 2 

nostrum amicum, vehementer sui status paenitere resti- 

tuique in eum locum cupere, ex quo decidit, doloremque 

suum impertire nobis et medicinam interdum aperte 

quaereure, quam ego possum invenire nuUam; deinde 

omnes illius partis auctores ac socios nullo adversario 

consenescere, consensionem universorum nee voluntatis 

nee sermonis maiorem umquam fuisse. 

Nos autem (nam id te scire cupere certo scio) pub- 3 

licis consiliis nullis intersumus totosque nos ad foren- 

sem operam laboreitique contulimus. Ex quo, quod 

facile intellegi possit, in multa commemoratione earum 

rerum, quas gessimus, desiderioque versamur. Sed 

fiodymSo^ nostrae consanguineus non mediocres terrores 

iacit atque denuntiat et Sampsiceramo negat, ceteris 

prae se fert et ostentat. Quam ob rem, si me amas 

tantum, quantum profecto amas, si dormis, expergiscere, 

si stas, ingredere, si ingrederis, curre, si curris, advola. 

Credibile non est, quantum ego in consiliis et prudentia 

tua, quodque maximum est, quantum in amore et fide 

ponam. Magnitudo rei longam orationem fortasse de- 

siderat, coniunctio vero nostrorum animorum brevitate 

contenta est. Permagni nostra interest te, si comitiis 

non potueris, at declarato illo esse Romae. Cura, ut 

valeas. • 

Xn. Ad Atticum 2. 25 

CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

Cum aliquem apud te laudaro tuorum familiarium,i 
volam ilium scire ex te me id fecissse, ut nuper me scis 



12 CICERO'S LETTERS 

scripsisse ad te de Varronis erga me officio, te ad me 
rescripsisse earn rem summae tibi voluptati esse. Sed 
ego mallem ad ilium scripsisses mihi ilium satis facere, 
non quo faceret, sed ut facere t ; mirabiliter enim mora- 
tus est, sicut nosti, ^ eXuicTa koX ovBev — '. Sed nos tene- 
mus praeceptum illud ^ ra^ r&v tcparovincav — ' . At hercule 
alter tuus familiaris, Hortalus, quam plena manu, quam 
ingenue, quam ornate nostras laudes in astra sustulit, 
cum de Flacci praetura et de illo tempore Allobrogum 
diceret! Sic habeto, nee amantius nee honorificentius 
nee copiosius potuisse dici. Ei te hoc scribere a me tibi 
2 esse missum sane volo. Sed quid tu scribas ? quem iam 
ego venire atque adesse arbitror; ita enim egi tecum 
superioribus litteris. Valde te exspecto, valde desidero 
neque ego magis, quam ipsa res et tempus poscit. 

His de negotiis quid scribam ad te nisi idem quod 
saepe? re publica nihil desperatius, iis, quorum opera, 
nihil maiore odio. Nos, ut opinio et spes et coniectura 
nostra fert, firmissima benevolentia hominum muniti 
sumus. Quare advola ; aut expedies nos omni molestia 
aut eris particeps. Ideo sum brevior, quod, ut spero, 
coram brevi tempore conferre, quae volumus, licebit. 
Cura, ut valeas. 

XIII. Ad Atticum 3. 3 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

Utinam ilium diem videam, cum tibi agam gratias, 
quod me vivere coegisti ! adhuc quidem valde me paeni- 
tet. Sed te oro, ut ad me Vibonem statim venias, quo 
ego multis de causis converti iter meum. Sed, eo si 



CICERO'S LETTERS 13 

veneris, de toto itinere ac fuga mea consilium capere 
potero. Si id non feceris, mirabor ; sed confido te esse 

facturum. 

XIV. Ad Atticum 3. 5 

CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

Terentia tibi et saepe et maximas agit gratias. Id est 
mihi gratissimum. Ego vivo miserrimus et maximo 
dolore conficior. Ad te quid scribam, nescio. Si enim 
es Romae, iam me adsequi non potes, sin es in via, cum 
ens me adsecutus, coram agemus, quae erunt agenda. 
Tantum te oro, ut,, quoniam me ipsum semper amasti, 
nunc eodem amore sis; ego enim idem sum. Inimici 
mei mea mihi, non me ipsum ademerunt. Cura, ut 
valeas. Data IIII Idus ApriL Thuri. 

XV. Ad Atticum 3. 4 
CICERO ATTICO §AL. 

Miseriae nostrae potius velim quam inconstantiae 
tribuas, quod a Vibone, quo te arcessebamus, subito 
discessimus. Allata est enim nobis rogatio de pernicie 
mea; in qua quod correctum esse audieramus, erat 
eius modi, ut mihi ultra quadringenta milia liceret esse, 
illo pervenire non liceret. Statim iter Brundisium versus 
contuli ante diem rogationis, ne et Sicca, apud quem 
eram, periret, et quod Melitae esse non Hcebat. Nunc 
tu propera, ut nos consequare, si modo recipiemur. 
Adhuc invitamur benigne, sed, quod superest, timemus. 
Me, mi Pomponi, valde paenitet vivere ; qua in re apud 
me tu plurimum valuisti. Sed haec coram. Fac modo, 
ut venias. 



14 CICERO'S LETTERS 

XVI. Ad Atticum 3. 6 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

Non fuerat mihi dubium, quin te Tarenti aut Brundisi 
visurus essem, idque ad multa pertinuit, in eis, et ut in 
Epiro consisteremus et de reliquis rebus tuo consilio 
uteremur. Quoniam id non contigit, erit hoc quoque 
in magno numero nostrorum malorum. Nobis iter est 
in Asiam, maxime Cyzicum. Meos tibi commendo. 
Me vix misereque sustento. Data XIIII K. Maias de 
Tarentino. 

XVII. Ad Familiares 14. 4 

TULLIUS S. D. TERENTIAE ET TULLIOLAE ET CICERONI 

SUIS. 

1 Ego minus saepe do ad vos Ktteras, quam possum, 
propterea quod cum omnia mihi tempora sunt misera, 
tum vero, cum aut scribo ad vos aut vestras lego, con- 
ficior lacrimis sic, ut ferre non possim. Quodutinam 
minus vitae cupidi fuissemus ! certe nihil aut non multum 
in vita mali vidissemus. Quodsi nos ad aliquam alicuius 
commodi aliquando recuperandi spem f ortuna reservavit, 
minus est erratum a nobis ; si haec mala fixa sunt, ego 
vero te quam primum, mea vita, cupio videre et in tuo 
complexu emori, quoniam neque dii, quos tu castissime 
coluisti, neque homines, quibus ego semper servivi, nobis 
gratiam rettulerunt. 

2 Nos Brundisi apud M. Laenium Flaccum dies XIII 
fuimus, virum optimum, qui periculum fortunarum et 
capitis sui prae mea salute neglexit neque legis improbissi- 
mae poena deductus est, quo minus hospiti et amicitiae 



CICERO'S LETTERS 15 

ius officiumque praestaret. Huic utinam aliquando gra- 
tiam referre possimus! habebimus quidem semper. 
Brundisio profecti sumus a. d. II K. Mai. ; per Mace- 3 
doniam Cyzicum petebamus. 

O me perditum, o adflictum ! Quid nunc rogem te, 
ut venias, mulierem aegram et corpore et animo con- 
fectam? Non rogem? sine te igitur sim? Opinor, sic 
agam : Si est spes nostri reditus, eam confirmes et rem 
adiuves; sin, ut ego metuo, transactum est, quoquo 
modo potes, ad me fac venias. Unum hoc scito : Si 
te habebo, non mihi videbor plane perisse. Sed quid 
TulKola mea fiet ? lam id vos videte ; mihi dest con- 
silium. Sed certe, quoquo modo se res habebit, illius 
misellae et matrimonio et famae serviendum est. Quid ? 
Cicero meus quid aget? Iste vero sit in sinu semper et 
complexu meo. Non queo plura iam scribere; in- 
pedit maeror. Tu quid egeris, nescio; utrum aUquid 
teneas an, quod metuo, plane sis spoliata. Pisonem,4 
ut scribis, spero fore semper nostrum. De familia 
liberata nihil est quod te moveat. Primum tuis ita 
promissum est, te facturam esse, ut quisque esset me- 
ritus; est autem in officio adhuc Orpheus, praeterea 
magnopere nemo ; ceterorum servorum ea causa est, ut, 
si res a nobis abisset, liberti nostri essent, si obtinere 
potuissent ; sin ad nos pertinerent, servirent praeterquam 
oppido pauci. Sed haec minora sunt. 

Tu quod me hortaris, ut animo sim magno et spems 
habeam recuperandae salutis, id velim sit eius modi, ut 
recte sperare possimus. Nunc miser quando tuas iam 
litteras accipiam? quis ad me perferet? Quas ego ex- 



l6 CICERO^S LETTERS 

spectassem Brundisi, si esset licitum per nautas, qui 
teiripestatem praetermittere noluerunt. Quod reli- 
quum est, sustenta te, mea Terentia, ut potes hones- 
tissime. Viximus, floruimus ; non vitium nostrum, sed 
virtus nostra nos adflixit ; peccatum est nullum, nisi quod 
non una animam cum omamentis amisimus. Sed si hoc 
fuit liberis nostris gratius, nos vivere, cetera, quamquam 
ferenda non sunt, feramus. Atque ego, qui te confirmo, 
6 ipse me non possum. Clodium Philhetaerum, quod 
valetudine oculorum impediebatur, hominem fidelem, 
remisi. Sallustius officio vincit omnes. Pescennius est 
perbenevolus nobis ; quem semper spero tui fore obser- 
vantem. Sicca dixerat se mecum fore, sed Brundisio 
discessit. Cura, quod potes, ut valeas et sic existimes, 
me vehementius tua miseria quam mea commoveri. 
Mea Terentia, fidissima atque optima uxor, et m^a 
carissima filiola et spes reliqua nostra, Cicero, valete. 
Pr. K. Mai. Brundisio. 

XVni. Ad Atticum 3. 12 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

1 Tu quidem sedulo argumentaris, quid sit sperandum et 
maxime per senatum, idemque caput rogationis proponi 
scribis, quare in senatu did nihil liceat. Itaque siletur. 
Hie tu me accusas, quod me adflictem, cum ita sim ad- 
flictus ut nemo umquam, quod tute intellegis. Spem 
ostendis secundum comitia. Quae ista est eodem tribune 

2 pi. et inimico consule designate ? Percussisti autem 
me etiam de oratione prolata. Cui vulneri, ut scribis, 
medere, si quid potes. Scripsi equidem olim ei iratus, 



CICERO'S LETTERS 17 

quod iUe prior scripserat, sed ita compresseram, ut 

numquam emanaturam putarem. Quo modo exciderit, 

nesdo. Sed, quia numquam accidit, ut cum eo verbo 

uno concertarem, et quia scrip ta mihi videtur neglegen- 

tius quam ceterae, puto posse probari non esse meam- 

Id, si putas me posse sanari, cures velim ; sin plane perii, 

minus laboro. 

Ego etiam nunc eodem in loco iaceo sine sermones 

ullo, sine cogitatione ulla. Scilicet tibi, ut scribis, 

significaram, ut ad me venires ; sed opera tua mihi in- 

tellego te istic prodesse, hie ne verbo quidem levare me 

posse. Non queo plura scribere, nee est, quod scribam ; 

vestra magis exspecto. Data XVI Kal. Sextiles Thes- 

salonicae. 

XIX. Ad Atticum 3. 13 

CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

Quod ad te scripseram me in Epiro futurum, postea-i 
quam extenuari spem nostram et evanescere vidi, mutavi 
consilium nee me Thessalonica commovi, ubi esse 
statueram, quoad aliquid ad me de eo scriberes, quod 
proximis litteris scripseras, fore uti secundum comitia 
aliquid de nobis in senatu ageretur; id tibi Pompeium 
dixisse. Qua de re, quoniam comitia habita sunt, tuque 
nihil ad me scribis, proinde habebo, ac si scripsisses nihil 
esse, meque temporis non. longinqui spe ductum esse 
non moleste feram. Quem autem motum te videre 
scripseras, qui nobis utilis fore videretur, eum nuntiant, 
qui veniunt, nullum fore. In tribunis pi. designatis 
reliqua spes est. Quam si exspectaro, non erit, quod 
putes me causae meae, yoluntati meorum defuisse. 



1 8 CICERO'S LETTERS 

2 Quod me saepe accusas, cur hunc meum casum tam 
graviter feram, debes ignoscere, cum ita me adflictum 
videas, ut neminem umquam nee videris nee audieris. 
Nam, quod scribis te audire me etiam mentis errore ex 
dolore adfiei, mihi vero mens Integra est. Atque utinam 
tam in perieulo fuisset ! eum ego iis, quibus meam s^lu- 
tem earissimam esse arbitrabar, inimieissimis erudelis- 
simisque usus sum ; qui, ut me paulum inelinari timore 
viderunt, sie impulerunt, ut omni suo seelere et perfidia 
abuterentur ad exitium meum. Nune, quoniam est 
Cyzieum nobis eundum, quo rarius ad me litterae per- 
ferentur, hoe velim diligentius omnia, quae putaris me 
seire opus esse, perseribas. Quintum fratrem meum 
fae diligas ; quem ego miser si incolumem relinquo, non 
me totum perisse arbitrabor. Data Nonis Sextilibus. 

XX. Ad Atticum 3. 18 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

1 Exspeetationem nobis non parvam attuleras, eum 
seripseras Varronem tibi pro amieitia confirmasse eau- 
sam nostram Pompeium eerte suseepturum et, simul a 
Caesare ei litterae, quas exspeetaret, remissae essent, 
actorem etiam daturum. Utrum id nihil fuit, an ad- 
versatae sunt Caesaris litterae, an est aliquid in spe? 
Etiam illud seripseras eundem ^secundum eomitia' 

2dixisse. Fae, si vides, quantis in malis iaeeam, et si 
putas esse humanitatis tuae, me fae de tota eausa nostra 
eertiorem. Nam Quintus frater, homo minis, qui me 
tam valde amat, omnia mittit spei plena metuens, eredo, 
def eetionem animi mei ; tuae a.utem litterae sunt variae ; 



CICERO^S LETTERS 19 

neque enim me desperare vis nee temere sperare. Fac, 
obsecro te, ut omnia, quae perspici a te possunt, sciamus. 

XXI. Ad Atticum 3. 19 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

Quoad eius modi mihi litterae a vobis adf erebantur, 1 
ut aliquid ex iis esset exspectandum, spe et cupiditate 
Thessalonicae retentus sum; posteaquam omnis actio 
huius anni confecta nobis videbatur, in Asiam ire nolui, 
quod et celebritas mihi odio est, et, si fieret aliquid a 
novis magistratibus, abesse longe nolebam. Itaque 
in Epirum ad te statui me conferre, non quo mea in- 
teresset loci natura, qui lucem omnino fugerem, sed et ad 
salutem lubentissime ex tuo portu proficiscar et, si ea 
praecisa erit, nusquam facilius banc miserrimam vitam 
vel sustentabo vel, quod multo est melius, abiecero. 
Ero cum paucis, multitudinem dimittam. Me tuaea 
litterae numquam in tantam spem adduxerunt quantam 
aliorum ; ac tamen mea spes etiam tenuior semper f uit 
quam tuae litterae. Sed tamen, quoniam coeptum est 
agi, quoquo modo coeptum est et quacumque de causa, 
non deseram neque optumi atque unici f ratris miseras ac 
luctuosas preces nee Sesti ceterorumque promissa nee 
spem aerumnosissimae mulieris Terentiae nee miserrimae 
[mulieris] Tulliolae obsecrationem et fideles litteras tuas. 
Mihi Epirus aut iter ad salutem dabit, aut quod scripsi 
supra. 

Te oro et obsecro, T. Pomponi, si me omnibus amplissi- 3 
mis, carissimis iucundissimisque rebus perfidia hominum 
spoliatum, si me a meis consiliariis proditum et proiectum 



20 CICERO'S LETTERS 

vides, si intellegis me coactum, ut ipse me et meos 
perderem, ut me tua misericordia iuves et Quintum 
fratrem, qui potest esse salvus, sustentes, Terentiam 
liberosque meos tueare, me, si putas te istic visurum, 
exspectes, si minus, invisas, si potes, mihique ex agro 
tuo tantum adsignes, quantum meo corpore occupari 
potest, et pueros ad me cum litteris quam primum et 
quam saepissime mittas. Data XVI Kal. Octobres. 

XXII. Ad Atticum 3. 20 
CICERO S. D. Q. CAECILIO Q. F. POMPONIANO ATTICO, 

iquod quidem ita esse et avunculum tuum functum 
esse officio vehementissime probo, gaudere me tum dicam, 
si mihi hoc verbo licebit uti. Me miserum! quam 
omnia essent ex sententia, si nobis animus, si consilium, 
si fides eorum, quibus credidimus, non defuisset ! Quae 
colligere nolo, ne augeam maerorem ; sed tibi venire in 
mentem certo scio, quae vita esset nostra, quae suavitas, 
quae dignitas. Ad quae recuperanda, per fortunas ! 
incumbe, ut facis, diemque natalem reditus mei cura 
ut in tuis aedibus amoenissimis agam tecum et cum 
meis. Ego huic spei et exspectationi, quae nobis pro- 
ponitur maxima, tamen volui praestolari apud te in 
Epiro, sed ita ad me scribitur, ut putem esse commodius 

2nos non eisdem in locis esse. De domo et Curionis 
oratione, ut scribis, ita est. In universa salute, si ea 
modo nobis restituetur, inerunt omnia ; ex quibus nihil 
maloquam domum. Sed tibi nihil mando nominatim, 
to tum me tuo amori fideique commendo. 
Quod te in tanta hereditate ab omni occupatione 



CICERO'S LETTERS 2i 

expedisti, valde mihi gratum est. Quod facultates tuas 
ad meam salutem polliceris, ut omnibus rebus a te 
praeter ceteros iuver, id quantum sit praesidium, video 
intellegoque te multas partes meae salutis et suscipere 
et posse sustinere neque, ut ita facias, rogandum esse. 
Quod me vetas quicquam suspicari accidisse ad animum 3 
tuum, quod secus a me erga te commissum aut praeter- 
missum videretur, geram tibi morem et liberabor ista 
cura, tibi tamen eo plus debebo, quo tua in me humani- 
tas fuerit excelsior quam in te mea. Velim, quid videas, 
quid intellegas, quid agatur, ad me scribas tuosque 
omnes ad nostram salutem adhortere. 

Rogatio Sesti neque dignitatis satis habet nee cau- 
tionis. Nam et nominatim ferri oportet et de bonis 
diligentius scribi, et id animadvertas velim. Data IIII 
Nonas Octobres Thessalonicae. 

XXIII. Ad Familiares 14. 2 

TULLIUS S. D. TERENTIAE SUAE ET TULLIOLAE ET 

CICERONI SUIS. 

Noli putare me ad quemquam longiores epistulasi 
scribere, nisi si quis ad me plura scripsit, cui puto re- 
scribi oportere ; nee enim habeo, quod scribam, nee hoc 
tempore quicquam difficilius facio; ad te vero et ad 
nostram Tulliolam non queo sine plurimis lacrimis 
scribere; vos enim video esse miserrimas, quas ego 
beatissimas semper esse volui, idque praestare debui 
et, nisi tam timidi fuissemus, praestitissem. Pisonem2 
nostrum merito eius amo plurimum. Eum, ut potui, 
per litteras cohortatus sum gratiasque egi, ut debui. 



22 CICERO'S LETTERS 

In novis tr. pi. intellego spem te habere. Id erit firmum, 
si Pompei voluntas erit ; sed Crassum tamen metuo. A 
te quidem omnia fieri fortissime et amantissime video 
nee miror, sed maereo casum eius modi, ut tantis tuis 
miseriis meae miseriae subleventur. Nam ad me P. 
Valerius, homo officiosus, scripsit, id quod ego maximo 
cum fletu legi, quem ad modum a Vestae ad tabulam 
Valeriam ducta esses. Hem, mea lux, meum desiderium, 
imde omnes opem petere solebant ! te nunc, mea Terentia, 
sic vexari, sic iacere in lacrimis et sordibus, idque fieri 
mea culpa, qui ceteros servavi, ut nos periremus ! 

3 Quod de domo scribis, hoc est de area, ego vero turn 
denique mihi videbor restitutus, si ilia nobis erit restituta. 
Verum haec^non sunt in nostra manu ; illud doleo, quae 
inpensa faciendast, in eius partem te miseram et de- 
spoliatam venire. Quodsi conficitur negotium, omnia 
consequemur; sin eadem nos fortuna premet, etiamne 
reliquias tuas misera proicies? Obsecro te, mea vita, 
quod ad sumptum attinet, sine alios, qui possunt, si 
modo volunt, sustinere et valetudinem istam infirmam, 
si me amas, noli vexare. Nam mihi ante oculos dies 
noctesque versaris ; omnis labores te excipere video ; 
timeo, ut sustineas. Sed video in te esse omnia. Quare, 
ut id, quod speras et quod agis, consequamur, servi vale- 

4 tudini. Ego, ad quos scribam, nescio, nisi ad eos, qui ad 
me scribunt, aut ad eos, de quibus ad me vos aliquid 
scribitis. Longius, quoniam ita vobis placet, non dis- 
cedam ; sed velim quam saepissime litteras mittatis, 
praesertim si quid est firmius, quod speremus. Valete, mea 
desideria, valete. D. a. d. Ill Non. Oct. Thessalonica. 



CICERO'S LETTERS 23 

XXIV. Ad Atticum 3. 22 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

Etsi diligenter ad me Qtiintus f rater et Piso, quae essent 1 
acta, scripserant, tamen vellem tua te occupatio non im- 
pedisset, quo minus, ut consuesti, ad me, quid ageretur, 
et quid intellegeres, perscriberes. Me adhuc Plancius 
liberalitate sua retinet iam aUquotiens conatum ire in 
Epirum. Spes homini est iniecta non eadem quae mihi 
posse nos una decedere; quam rem sibi magno honori 
sperat fore. Sed iam, cum adventare miKtes dicentur, 
faciendum nobis erit, ut ab eo discedamus. Quod cum 
faciemus, ad te statim mittemus, ut scias, ubi simus. 
Lentulus suo in nos officio, quod et re et promissis et2 
litteris declarat, spem nobis non nuUam adfert Pompei 
volimtatis ; saepe enim tu ad me scripsisti eum totum esse 
in illius potestate. De Metello scripsit ad me frater 
quantum speraret profectum esse per te. Mi Pomponi, 3 
pugna, ut tecum et cum meis mihi liceat vivere, et scribe 
ad me omnia. Premor luctu, desiderio cum omnium 
rerum tum meorum, qui mihi me cariores semper fuerunt. 
Cura ut valeas. 

Ego quod, per ThessaUam si irem in Epirum, perdiui 
nihil eram audi turns, et quod mei studiosos habeo 
Dyrrachinos, ad eos perrexi, cum ilia superiora Thessa- 
lonicae scripsissem. Inde cum ad te me convertam, 
faciam, ut scias, tuque ad me velim omnia quam dili- 
gentissime, cuicuimodi sunt, scribas. Ego iam aut rem 
aut ne spem quidem exspecto. Data VI Kal. Decembr. 
Dyrrachi. 



24 CICERO'S LETTERS 

XXV. Ad Atticum 3. 25 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

Post tuum a me discessum litterae mihi Roma alla- 
tae sunt, ex quibus perspicio nobis in hac calamitate 
tabescendum esse. Neque enim (sed bonam in partem 
accipies), si ulia spes salutis nostrae subesset, tu pro tuo 
amore in me hoc tempore discessisses. Sed, ne ingrati 
aut ne omnia velle nobiscum una interire videamur, hoc 
omitto ; illud abs te peto des operam, id quod mihi ad- 
firmasti, ut te ante Kalendas lanuarias, ubicumque 
erimus, sistas. 

XXVI. Ad Atticum 3. 26 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

Litterae mihi a Quinto fratre cum senatus consulto, 
quod de me est factum, allatae sunt. Mihi in animo 
est legum lationem exspectare, et, si obtrectabitur, 
utar auctoritate senatus et potius vita quam patria 
carebo. Tu, quaeso, festina ad nos venire. 

XXVII. Ad Familiares 5. 4 
M. CICERO S. D. Q. METELLO COS. 

1 Litterae Quinti fratris et T. Pomponi, necessari 
mei, tantum spei dedefant, ut in te non minus auxili 
quam in tuo coUega mihi constitutum fuerit. Itaque 
ad te litteras statim misi, per quas, ut fortuna postu- 
labat, et gratias tibi egi et de reliquo tempore auxilium 
petii. Postea mihi non tam meorum litterae quam 
sermones eorum, qui hac iter faciebant, animum tuum 



CICERO'S LETTERS 25 

inmutatum significabant ; quae res fecit, ut tibi litteris 
obstrepere non auderem. Nunc mihi Quintus f rater meus 2 
mitissimam tuam orationem, quam in senatu habuisses, 
perscripsit ; qua inductus ad te scribere sum conatus et 
abs te, quantum tua fert voluntas, peto quaesoque, ut 
tuos mecum serves potius quam propter adrogantem 
crudeKtatem tuorum me obpugnes. Tu, tuas inimicitias 
ut rei p. donares, te vicisti : aKenas ut contra rem p. con- 
firmes, adduceris? Quodsi mihi tua dementia opem 
tuleris, omnibus in rebus me fore in tua potestate tibi 
confirmo. Si mihi neque magistratum neque senatum 
neque populum auxiliari propter eam vim, quae me cum 
re p. vicit, licuerit, vide, ne, cum velis revocare tempus 
omnium servandorum, cum, qui servetur, non erit, 
non possis. 

XXVIII. Ad Atticum 3. 27 

CICERO ATTICO SAI.. 

Ex tuis Ktteris et ex re ipsa nos funditus perisse video. 
Te oro, ut, quibus in rebus tui mei indigebunt, nostris 
miseriis ne desis. Ego te, ut scribis, cito videbo. 

XXIX. Ad Atticum 4. i 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

Cum primum Romam veni, fuitque, cui recte ad tei 
litteras darem, nihil prius faciendum mihi putavi, quam 
ut tibi absenti dc reditu nostro gratularer. Cognoram 
enim, ut vere scribam, te in consiliis mihi dandis nee 
fortiorem nee prudentiorem quam me ipsum nee etiam 
pro praeterita mea in te observantia nimium in custodia 



26 CICERO'S LETTERS 

salutis meae diligentem, eimdemque te, qui primis 
temporibus erroris nostri aut potius furoris particeps 
et falsi timoris socius fuisses, acerbissime discidium 
nostrum tulisse plurimumque operae, studi, diligentiae, 

2 laboris ad conficiendum reditum meum contulisse. Ita- 
que hoc tibi vere adfirmo, in maxima laetitia et exopta- 
tissima gratulatione unum ad cumulandum gaudium 
conspectum aut potius complexum mihi tuum defuisse. 
Quem semel nactus si umquam dimisero ac nisi etiam 
praetermissos fructus tuae suavitatis praeteriti temporis 
omnes exegero, profecto hac restitutione fortunae me 
ipse non satis dignum iudicabo. 

3 Nos adhuc, in nostro statu quod difficillime recuperari 
posse arbitrati sumus, splendorem nostrum ilium foren- 
sem et in senatu auctoritatem et apud viros bonos gra- 
tiam magis, quam optamus, consecuti sumus; in re 
autem familiari, quae quem ad modum fracta, dissipata, 
direpta sit, non ignoras, valde laboramus tuarumque 
non tam facultatum, quas ego nostras esse iudico, quam 
consiliorum ad colligendas et constituendas reliquias 
nostras indigemus. 

4 Nimc, etsi omnia aut scripta esse a tuis arbitror aut 
etiam nuntiis ac rumore perlata, tamen ea scribam brevi, 
quae te puto potissimum ex meis litteris velle cognoscere. 
Pr. Nonas Sextiles Dyrrachio sum profectus ipso illo die, 
quo lex est lata de nobis. Brundisium veni Nonis Sex- 
tilibus. Ibi mihi Tulliola mea fuit praesto natali suo ipso 
die, qui casu idem natalis erat et Brundisinae coloniae et 
tuae vicinae Salutis ; quae res animadversa a multitudine 
summa Brundisinorum gratulatione celebrata est. Ante 



CICERO'S LETTERS 27 

diem VI Idus Sextiles cognovi, cum Brundisi essem, 
litteris Quinti mirifico studio omnium aetatum atque 
ordinum, incredibili concursu Italiae legem comitiis 
centuriatis esse perlatam. Inde a Brundisinis honestissi- 
mis omatus iter ita feci, ut undique ad me cum gratula- 
tione legati convenerint. Ad urbem ita veni, ut nemos 
ullius ordinis homo nomenclatori notus fuerit, qui mihi 
obviam non venerit, praeter eos inimicos, quibus id ip- 
sum, se inimicos esse, non liceret aut dissimulare aut 
negare. Cum venissem ad portam Capenam, gradus 
templorum ab infimo plebe completi erant. A qua 
plausu maximo cum esset mihi gratulatio significata, 
similis et frequentia et plausus me usque ad Capitolium 
celebravit, in foroque et in ipso Capitolio miranda multi- 
tudo fuit. 

Postridie in senatu, qui fuit dies Nonarum Septembr., 
senatui gratias egimus. Eo biduo cum esset annonaee 
summa caritas, et homines ad theatrum primo, deinde 
ad senatum concurrissent, impulsu Clodi mea opera 
frumenti inopiam esse clamarent, cum per eos dies sena- 
tus de annona haberetur, et ad eius procurationem 
sermone non solum plebis, verum etiam bonorum Pom- 
peius vocaretur, idque ipse cuperet, multitudoque a 
me nominatim, ut id decernerem, postularet, feci et 
accurate sententiam dixi. Cum abessent consulares, 
quod tuto se negarent posse sententiam dicere, praeter 
Messallam et Afranium, factum est senatus consultum in 
meam sententiam, ut cum Pompeio ageretur, ut eam rem 
susciperet, lexque ferretur. Quo senatus consulto re- 
citato cum populus more hoc insulso et novo plausum 



28 CICERO'S LETTERS 

meo nomine recitando dedisset, habui contionem. 
Omnes magistratus praesentes praeter unum praetorem 

7et duos tribunos pi. dederunt. Postridie senatus fre- 
quens et omnes consulares nihil Pompeio postulanti 
negarunt. lUe legatos quindecim cum postularet, me 
principem nominavit et ad omnia me alterum se fore 
dixit. Legem consules conscripserunt, qua Pompeio 
per quinquennium omnis potestas rei frumentariae toto 
orbe terrarum daretur, alteram Messius, qui omnis 
pecuniae dat potestatem et adiungit classem et exercitum 
et mains imperium in provinciis, quam sit eorum qui 
eas obtineant. Ilia nostra lex consularis nunc modesta 
videtur, haec Messi non ferenda. Pompeius illam velle 
se dicit, familiares banc. Consulares duce Favonio fre- 
munt ; nos tacemus et eo magis, quod de domo nostra 
nihil adhuc pontifices responderunt. Qui si sustulerint 
reUgionem, aream praeclaram habebimus; superficiem 
consules ex senatus consulto aestimabunt; sin aliter, 
demolientur, suo nomine locabunt, rem totam aestima- 
bunt. 

8 Ita sunt res nostrae, 

*Ut In secundis fluxae, ut in advorsis bonae.' 

In re familiari valde sumus, ut scis, perturbati. Prae- 
terea sunt quaedam domestica, quae litteris non com- 
mitto. Quintum fratrem insigni pietate, virtute, fide 
praeditum sic amo, ut debeo. Te exspecto et oro, ut 
matures venire eoque animo venias, ut me tuo consilio 
egere non sinas. Alterius' vitae quoddam initium ordi- 
mur. lam quidam,'qui nos absentes defenderunt, in- 



CICERO^S LETTERS 29 

cipiunt praesentibus occulte irasci, aperte invidere. 
Vehementer te requirimus. 

XXX. Ad Familiares 7. 26 

CICERO S. D. GALLO. 

Cum decumum iam diem graviter ex intestinis la-i 
borarem neque iis, qui mea opera uti volebant, me 
probarem non valere, quia febrim non haberem, fugi 
in Tusculanum, cum quidem biduum ita ieiunus fuissem, 
ut ne aquam quidem gustarem. Itaque confectus 
languore et fame magis tuum officium desideravi quam 
a te requiri putavi meum. Ego autem cum omnis . 
morbos reformido, tum in quo Epicurum tuum Stoici 
male accipiunt, quia dicat * arpayyovpLKa koI Bvaevre- 
piKCL TrdOr) ' sibi molesta esse ; quorum alterum morbum 
edacitatis esse putant, alterum etiam turpioris intem- 
perantiae. Sane hvaevreplav pertimueram; sed visa 
est mihi vel loci mutatio vel animi etiam relaxatio vel 
ipsa fortasse iam senescentis morbi remissio profuisse. 
Ac tamen ne mirere, unde hoc accident, quo modovea 
commiserim, lex sumptuaria, quae videtur XtTorrjTa 
attulisse, ea mihi fraudi fuit. Nam, dum volunt isti 
lauti terra nata, quae lege excepta sunt, in honorem 
adducere, fungos, helvellas, herbas omnis ita condiunt, 
ut nihil possit esse suavius. In eas cum incidissem in 
cena augurali apud Lentulum, tanta me hidppoia arri- 
puit, ut hodie primum videatur coepisse consistere. Ita 
ego, qui me ostreis et murenis facile abstinebam, a beta 
et a malva deceptus sum. Posthac igitur erimus 
cautiores. 



30 CICERO^S LETTERS 

Tu tamen, cum audisses ab Anicio (vidit enim me 
nauseantem), non modo mittendi causam iustam ha- 
buisti, sed etiam visendi. Ego hie cogito commorari, 
quoad me reficiam, nam et viris et corpus amisi; sed, 
si morbum depulero, facile, ut spero, ilia revocabo. 

XXXI. Ad Atticum 4. 4 a 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

Periucundus mihi Cincius fuit ante diem III Kal. 
Febr. ante lucem ; dixit enim mihi te esse in Italia sese- 
que ad te pueros mittere. Quos sine meis litteris ire 
nolui, non quo haberem, quod tibi, praesertim iam 
prope praesenti, scriberem, sed ut hoc ipsum signifi- 
carem, mihi tuum adventum suavissimum exspecta- 
tissimumque esse. Quare advola ad nos eo animo, ut 
nos ames, te amari scias. Cetera coram agemus. Haec 
properantes scripsimus. Quo die venies, utique cum 
tuis apud me eris. 

XXXII. Ad Atticum 4. 4 b 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

1 Perbelle feceris, si ad nos veneris. Offendes desig- 
nationem Tyrannionis mirificam librorum meorum, 
quorum reUquiae multo meliores sunt, quam putaram. 
Et velim mihi mittas de tuis librariolis duos aUquos, 
quibus Tyrannic utatur glutinatoribus, ad cetera ad- 
ministris, iisque imperes, ut sumant membranulam, 
ex qua indices fiant, quos vos Graeci, ut opinor, aLXKv- 

2l3ov9 appellatis. Sed haec, si tibi erit commodum. Ipse 
vero utique fac venias, si potes in his locis adhaerescere 



CICERO'S LETTERS 31 

et Piliam adducere. Ita enim et aequiim est et cupit 
Tullia. Medius fidius ne tu emisti ludum praeclarum. 
Gladiatores audio pugnare mirifice. Si locare voluisses, 
duobus his mimeribus liberasses. Sed haec posterius. 
Tu fac venias et de librariis, si me amas, diligenter. 

XXXni. Ad Atticum 4. 5 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

Ain tu ? me existimas ab uUo malle mea legi probarique 1 
quam a te ? Cur igitur cuiquam misi prius ? Urguebar 
ab eo, ad quern misi, et non habebam exemplar. Quid ? 
Etiam (dudum enim circumrodo, quod devorandum est) 
subturpicula mihi videbatur esse TraXLvqySia. Sed valeant 
recta, vera, honesta consilia. Non est credibile, quae 
sit perfidia in istis principibus, ut volunt esse et ut 
assent, si quicquam haberent fidei. Senseram, noram 
inductus, relictus, proiectus ab iis. Tamen hoc eram 
animo, ut cum iis in re publica consentirem. Idem 
erant, qui fuerant. Vix aUquando te auctore resipui. 
Dices ea te monuisse, suasisse, quae facerem, non 2 
etiam ut scriberem. Ego mehercule mihi necessitatem 
volui imponere huius novae coniunctionis, ne qua mihi 
Kceret labi ad illos, qui etiam tum, cum misereri mei 
debent, non desinimt invidere. Sed tamen modici 
fuimus v7ro0€(T€L, ut scripsi. Erimus uberiores, si et ille 
libenter accipiet, et ii subringentur, qui villam me 
moleste ferunt habere, quae Catuli fuerat, a Vettio 
emisse non cogitant ; qui domum negant oportuisse me 
aedificare, vendere aiunt oportuisse. Sed quid ad hoc, si, 
quibus sententiis dixi, quod et ipsi probarent, laetati 



32 CICERO'S LETTERS 

sunt tamen me contra Pompei voluntatem dixisse? 
Finis sit. Quoniam, qui nihil possunt, ii me nolunt 
amare, demus operam, ut ab iis, qui possunt, diligamur. 
3 Dices: ^Vellem iam pridem.' Scio te voluisse et me 
asinum germanum fuisse. Sed iam tempus est me 
ipsum a me amari, quando ab illis nuUo modo possum. 
Domum meam quod crebro invisis, est mihi valde 
gratum. Viaticum Crassipes praeripit. Tullia de via 
recta in hortos. Videtur commodius. Ad te postridie 
scilicet ; quid enim tua? Sed viderimus. Bibliothecam 
mihi tui pinxerunt constructione et sillybis. Eos velim 
laudes. 

XXXIV. Ad Atticum 4. 8 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

1 Multa me in epistula tua delectarunt, sed nihil magis 
quam patina tyrotarichi. Nam de raudusculo quod 
scribis, 

* fii^Tra) fie/ etirr}*;, irplv reKevrrjaavT tSr)^,' 

Aedificati tibi in agris nihil reperio. In oppido est 
quiddam, de quo est dubium, sitne venale, ac proximum 
quidem nostris aedibus. Hoc scito, Antium Buthro- 
tum esse Romae, ut Corcyrae illud tuum. Nihil quietius, 
nihil alsius, nihil amoenius. 

* E??; flOl 0ST09^tX09 0Z/C09/ 

2 Postea vero quam Tyrannio mihi libros disposuit, mens 
addita videtur meis aedibus. Qua quidem in re mirifica 
opera Dionysi et Menophili tui fuit. Nihil venustius 
quam ilia tua pegmata, postquam mi sillybis libros 



CICERO'S LETTERS 33 

illustrarunt. Vale. Et scribas ad me velim de gladia- 
toribus, sed ita, bene si rem gerunt ; non quaero, male si 
se gessere. 

XXXV. Ad Familiares 7. 23 
CICERO S. D. M. FADIO GALLO. 

Tantum quod ex Arpinati veneram, cum mihi a tei 
litterae redditae sunt, ab eodemque accepi Aviani litteras, 
in quibus hoc inerat liberalissimum, nomina se facturum, 
cum venisset, qua ego vellem die. Fac, quaeso, qui ego 
sum, esse te ; estne aut tui pudoris aut nostri primum 
rogare de die, deinde plus annua postulate ? Sed essent, 
mi Galle, omnia facilia, si et ea mercatus esses, quae ego 
desiderabam, et ad eam summam, quam volueram. 
Ac tamen ista ipsa, quae te emisse scribis, non solum 
rata mihi erunt, sed etiam grata ; plane enim intellego te 
non modo studio, sed etiam amore usum, quae te delec- 
tarint, hominem, ut ego semper iudicavi, in onrni iudicio 
elegantissimum, quae me digna putaris, coemisse. Sed 2 
velim maneat Damasippus in sententia; prorsus enim 
ex istis emptionibus nullam desidero. Tu autem ig- 
narus instituti mei, quanti ego genus omnino signorum 
omnium non aestimo, tanti ista quattuor aut quinque 
sumpsisti. Bacchas istas cum Musis Metelli comparas. 
Quid simile? Primum ipsas ego Musas numquam tanti 
putassem atque id fecissem Musis omnibus adprobanti- 
bus, sed tamen erat aptum bibliothecae studiisque 
nostris congruens ; Bacchis vero ubi est apud me locus? 
At pulchellae sunt. Novi op time et saepe vidi. Nomi- 
natim tibi signa mihi nota mandassem, si probassem. 



34 CICERO'S LETTERS 

Ea enim signa ego emere soleo, quae ad similitudinem 
gymnasiorum exornent mihi in palaestra locum. Martis 
vero signum quo mihi pads auctori? Gaudeo nullum 
Saturni signum fuisse ; haec enim duo signa putarem 
mihi aes alienum attulisse. Mercuri mallem aliquod 
fuisset; felicius, puto, cum Avianio transigere posse- 

smus. Quod tibi destinaras trapezophorum, si te de- 
lectat, habebis; sin autem sententiam mutasti, ego 
habebo scilicet. Ista quidem sirnima ne ego multo 
libentius emerim deversorium Tarracinae, ne semper 
hospiti molestus sim. Onrnino liberti mei video esse 
culpam, cui plane res certas mandaram, itemque luni, 
quem puto tibi notum esse, Aviani familiarem. Ex- 
hedria quaedam mihi nova sunt instituta in porticula 
Tusculani. Ea volebam tabellis ornare; etenim, si 
quid generis istius modi me delectat, pictura delectat. 
Sed tamen, si ista mihi sunt habenda, certiorem velim 
me facias, ubi sint, quando arcessantur, quo genere 
vecturae. Si enim Damasippus in sententia non mane- 
bit, aliquem Pseudodamasippum vel cum iactura re- 
periemus. 

4 Quod ad me de domo scribis iterum, iam id ego pro- 
ficiscens mandaram meae Tulliae; ea enim ipsa hora 
acceperam tuas litteras. Egeram etiam cum tuo Nicia, 
quod is utitur, ut scis, familiariter Cassio. Ut redii 
autem, priusquam tuas legi has proximas litteras, quae- 
sivi de mea Tullia, quid egisset. Per Liciniam se egisse 
dicebat (sed opinor Cassium uti non ita multum sorore) ; 
eam porro negare se audere, cum vir abesset (est enim 
profectus in Hispaniam Dexius), illo et absente et 



CICERO^S LETTERS 35 

insciente, migrare. Est mihi gratissimum tanti a te aes- 
timatam consuetudinem vitae victusque nostri, primum 
ut earn domum sumeres, ut non modo prope me, sed 
plane mecum habitare posses, deinde ut migrare tanto 
opere festines. Sed ne vivam, si tibi concedo, ut eius 
rei tu cupidior sis, quam ego sum. Itaque omnia ex- 
periar; video enim, quid mea intersit, quid utriusque 
nostrum. Si quid egero, faciam, ut scias. Tu et ad 
omnia rescribes et, quando te exspectem, fades me, si 
tibi videtur, certiorem. 

XXXVI. Ad Familiares 7. i 
M.CICERO S. D. M. MARIO. 

Si te dolor aliqui corporis aut infirmitas valetudinisi 
tuae tenuit, quo minus ad ludos venires, fortunae magis 
tribuo quam sapientiae tuae; sin haec, quae ceteri 
mirantur, contemnenda duxisti et, cum per valetudinem 
posses, venire tamen noluisti, utrumque laetor, et sine 
dolore corporis te fuisse et animo valuisse, cum ea, quae 
sine causa mirantur alii, neglexeris, modo ut tibi constiterit 
f ructus oti tui ; quo quidem tibi perfrui mirifice licuit, 
cum esses in ista amoenitate paene solus relictus. Neque 
tamen dubito, quin tu in illo cubiculo tuo, ex quo tibi 
Stabianum perforasti et patefecisti sinum, per eos dies 
matutina tempora lectiunculis consumpseris, cum illi 
interea, qui te istic reliquerunt, spectarent communis 
mimos semi^omni. Reliquas vero partis diei tu consume- 
bas iis delectationibus, quas tibi ipse ad arbitrium tuum 
compararas ; nobis autem erant ea perpetienda, quae Sp. 
Maecius probavisset. 



36 CICERO'S LETTERS 

2 Omnino, si quaeris, ludi apparatissimi, sed non tui 
stomachi; coniecturam enim facio de meo. Nam pri- 
mum honoris causa in scaenam redierant ii, quos ego 
honoris causa de scaena decessisse arbitrabar. Deliciae 
vero tuae, noster Aesopus, eius modi fuit, ut ei desinere 
per omnis homines liceret. Is iurare cum coepisset, 
vox eum defecit in illo loco : *Si sciens fallo'. Quid 
tibi ego alia narrem ? nosti enim reliquos ludos ; qui ne id 
quidem leporis habuerunt, quod solent mediocres ludi. 
Apparatus enim spectatio toUebat omnem hilaritatem, 
quo quidem apparatu non dubito quin animo aequissimo 
carueris. Quid enim delectationis habent sescenti muli 
in Xly taemestra ' aut in *Equo Troiano' creterrarum 
tria milia aut armatura varia peditatus et equitatus 
in aliqua pugna ? quae popularem admirationem habue- 

3 runt, delectationem tibi nuUam attulissent. Quodsi 
tu per eos dies operam dedisti Protogeni tuo, dum mode 
is tibi quidvis potius quam orationes meas legerit, ne tu 
haud paulo plus quam quisquam nostrum delectationis 
habuisti. Non enim te puto Graecos aut Oscos ludos 
desiderasse, praesertim cum Oscos vel in senatu vestro 
spectare possis, Graecos ita non ames, ut ne ad villam 
quidem tuam via Graeca ire soleas. Nam quid ego te 
athletas putem desiderare, qui gladiatores contempseris ? 
in quibus ipse Pompeius confitetur se et operam et 
oleum perdidisse. Reliquae sunt venationes binae per 
dies quinque, magnificae, nemo negat ; sed quae potest 
homini esse polito delectatio, cum aut homo inbecillus 
a valentissima bestia laniatur, aut praeclara bestia 
venabulo transverberatur ? Quae tamen, si videnda 



CICERO'S LETTERS 37 

sunt, saepe vidisti; neque nos, qui haec spect^mus, 
quicquam novi vidimus. Extremus elephantorum dies 
fuit. In quo admiratio magna vulgi atque turbae, 
delectatio nulla exstitit ; quin etiam misericordia quae- 
dam consecutast atque opinio eius modi, esse quandam 
illi beluae cum genere humano societatem. 

His ego tamen diebus ludis scaenicis, ne forte vi-4 
dear tibi non modo beatus, sed liber omnino fuisse, 
dirupi me paene in iudicio Galli Canini, familiaris tui. 
Quodsi tam facilem populum haberem, quam Aesopus 
habuit, libenter mehercule artem desinerem tecumque 
et cum similibus ilostri viverem. Nam me cum antea 
taedebat, cum et aetas et ambitio me hortabatur, et 
licebat denique, quem nolebam, non defendere, tum vero 
hoc tempore vita nuUast. Neque enim fructum uUum 
laboris exspecto et cogor non numquam homines non 
optime de me meritos rogatu eorum, qui bene meriti 
sunt, defendere. Itaque quaero causas omnis aliquandos 
vivendi arbitratu meo teque et istam rationem oti tui 
et laudo vehementer et probo, quodque nos minus inter- 
visis, hoc fero animo aequiore, quod, si Romae esses, 
tamen neque nos lepore tuo neque te, si qui est in me, 
meo frui liceret propter molestissimas occupationes meas. 
Quibus si me relaxaro (nam, ut plane exsolvam, non 
postulo), te ipsum, qui multos annos nihil aliud com- 
mentaris, docebo profecto, quid sit humaniter vivere. 
Tu modo istam imbecillitatem valetudinis tuae sustenta 
et tuere, ut facis, ut nostras villas obire et mecum simul 
lecticula concursare possis. 

Haec ad te pluribus verbis scripsi, quam soleo, none 



38 CICERO'S LETTERS 

oti abundantia, sed amoris erga te, quod me quadam 
epistula subinvitaras, si memoria tenes, ut ad te aliquid 
eius modi scriberem, quo minus te praetermisisse ludos 
paeniteret. Quod si adsecutus sum, gaudeo ; sin minus, 
hoc me tamen consolor, quod f)osthac ad ludos venies 
nosque vises neque in epistulis relinques meis spem ali- 
quam delectationis tuae. 

XXXVII. Ad Quintum Fratrem 2. 9 
MARCUS QUINTO FRATRI SALUTEM. 

1 Epistolam banc convicio efflagitarunt codicilli tui. 
Nam res quidem ipsa et is dies, quo tu es profectus, 
nihil mihi ad scribendum argumenti sane dabat. Sed, 
quem ad modum, coram cum sumus, sermo nobis deesse 
non solet, sic epistolae nostrae debent interdum halu- 

2 cinari. Tenediorum igitur libertas securi Tenedia prae- 
cisa est, cum eos praeter me et Bibulum et Calidium et 
Favonium nemo defenderet. De te a Magnetibus ab 
Sipylo mentio est honorifica facta, cum te unum dicerent 
postulationi L. Sesti Pansae restitisse. Reliquis diebus 
si quid erit, quod te scire opus sit, aut etiamsi nihil erit, 

stamen scribam cotidie aliquid. Pridie Idus neque tibi 
neque Pomponio deero. Lucreti poemata, ut scribis, ita 
sunt, multis luminibus ingeni, multae tamen artis ; sed, 
cum veneris, virum te putabo, si Sallusti Empedoclea 
legeris, hominem non putabo. 

XXXVIII. Ad Familiares 7. 5 
CICERO CAESARI IMP. S. D. 

1 Vide, quam mihi persuaserim te me esse alterum non 
modo in iis rebus, quae ad me ipsum, sed etiam in iis, 



CICERO'S LETTERS 39 

quae ad meos pertinent. C. Trebatium cogitaram, 
quocumque exirem, mecum ducere, ut eum meis omnibus 
studiis, beneficiis quam ornatissimum domum reducerem ; 
sed, posteaquam et Pompei commoratio diuturnior erat, 
quam putaram, et mea quaedam tibi non ignota dubitatio 
aut impedire profectionem meam videbatur aut certe 
tardare (vide, quid mihi sumpserim), coepi velle ea Tre- 
batium exspectare a te, quae sperasset a me, neque me- 
hercule minus ei prolixe de tua voluntate promisi, quam 
eram solitus de mea polliceri. Casus vero mirificusa 
quidam intervenit quasi vel testis opinionis meae vel 
sponsor humanitatis tuae. Nam, cum de hoc ipso 
Trebatio cum Balbo nostro loquerer accuratius domi 
meae, litterae mihi dantur a te, quibus in extremis scrip- 
tum erat : * M. Iteium, quem mihi commendas, vel regem 
Galliae faciam, vel hunc Leptae delega, si vis. Tu ad 
me alium mitte, quem ornem\ Sustulimus manus et ego 
et Balbus. Tanta fuit opportunitas, ut illud nescio quid 
non fortuitum, sed divinum videretur. Mitto igitur ad 
te Trebatium atque ita mitto, ut initio mea sponte, post 
autem invitatu tuo mittendum duxerim. Hunc, mis 
Caesar, sic velim omni tua comitate complectare, ut 
omnia, quae per me possis adduci ut in meos conferre 
velis, in unum hunc conferas. De quo tibi homine haec 
spondeo non illo vetere verbo meo, quod, cum ad te de 
Milone scripsissem, iure lusisti, sed more Romano, quo 
modo homines non inepti locuntur, probiorem hominem, 
meliorem virum, pudentiorem esse neminem ; accedit 
etiam, quod familiam ducit in iure civili singulari me- 
moria, summa scientia. Huic ego neque tribunatum 



40 CICERO^S LETTERS 

neque praefecturam neque ullius benefici certum nomen 
peto, benevolentiam tuam et liberalitatem peto neque 
impedio, quo minus, si tibi ita placuerit, etiam hisce eum 
ornes gloriolae insignibus ; totum denique hominem tibi 
ita trado, *de manu', ut aiunt, 4n manum' tuam istam 
et victoria et fide praestantem. Simus enim putidius- 
culi, quamquam per te vix licet ; verum, ut video, Kce- 
bit. Cura, ut valeas, et me, ut amas, ama. 

XXXIX. Ad Familiares 7. 6 
CICERO S. D. TREBATIO. 

1 In omnibus meis epistolis, quas ad Caesarem aut ad 
Balbum mitto, legitima quaedam est accessio commenda- 
tionis tuae, nee ea vulgaris, sed cum aliquo insigni indicio 
meae erga te benevolentiae. Tu modo ineptias istas 
et desideria urbis et urbanitatis depone et, quo consilio 
profectus es, id assiduitate et virtute consequere. Hoc 
tibi tarn ignoscemus nos amici, quam ignoverunt Medeae, 

' Qua6 Corinthum arcem ^Itam habebant 
» matronae opulentae, optimates', 

quibus ilia manibus gypsatissimis persuasit, ne sibi 
vitio illae verterent, quod abesset a patria ; nam 

*Multi suam rem bene gessere et p6blicam 

patria procul; 
Multi, qui domi aetatem agerent, propterea 

sunt improbati'. 

2 Quo in numero tu certe fuisses, nisi te extrusissemus. 
Sed plura scribemus alias. Tu, qui ceteris cavere 



CICERO^S LETTERS 41 

didicisti, in Britannia ne ab essedariis decipiaris, caveto 
et (quoniam Medeam coepi agere) illud semper memento : 

* Qui ipse sibi sapiens prodesse non quit, 

nequiquSm sapit'. 
Cura, ut valeas. 

XL. Ad Familiares 7. 7 
CICERO TREBATIO. 

Ego te commendare non desisto, sed, quid proficiam,i 
ex te scire cupio. Spem maximam habeo in Balbo, ad 
quem de te diligentissime et saepissime scribo. Illud 
soleo mirari, non me totiens accipere tuas litteras, quo- 
tiens a Quinto mihi fratre adferantur. In Britannia 
nihil esse audio neque auri neque argenti. Id si itast, 
essedum aliquod capias suadeo et ad nos quam primum 
recurras. Sin autem sine Britannia tamen adsequi, quod 2 
volumus, possumus, perfice, ut sis in f amiliaribus Caesaris. 
Multum te in eo frater adiuvabit mens, multum Balbus, 
sed, mihi crede, tuus pudor et labor plurimum. Im- 
peratorem habes liberalissimum, aetatem opportimissi- 
mam, commendationem certe singularem, ut tibi unum 
timendum sit, ne ipse tibi defuisse videare. 

XLL Ad Atticum 4. 14 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

Vestorius noster me per litteras fecit certiorem tei 
Roma a. d. VI Idus Maias putari profectum esse tardius, 
quam dixeras, quod minus valuisses. Si iam melius 
vales, vehementer gaudeo. Velim domum ad te scribas, 
ut mihi tui libri pateant non secus, ac si ipse adesses, 



42 CICERO'S LETTERS 

cum ceteri turn Varronis. Est enim mihi utendum qui- 
busdam rebus ex his libris ad eos, quos in manibus 
2 habeo ; quos, ut spero, tibi valde probabo. Tu velim, si 
quid forte novi habes, maxime a Quinto fratre, deinde a 
C. Caesare, et si quid forte de comitiis, de re publica 
(soles enim tu haec festive odorari), scribas ad me; si 
nihil habebis, tamen scribas aliquid. Numquam enim 
mihi tua epistula aut intempestiva aut loquax visa est. 
Maxime autem rogo, rebus tuis to toque itinere ex sen- 
tentia confecto nos quam primum revisas. Dionysium 
iube salvere. Cura, ut valeas. 

XLII. Ad Familiar es 7. i6 

M. CICERO S. D. TREBATIO. 

1 In 'Equo Troiano' scis esse in extremo : 'sero 
sapiunt.' Tu tamen, mi vetule,non sero. Primas illas 
rabiosulas sat fatuas dedisti ; deinde quod in Britannia 
non nimis (jyiXodeoDpov te praebuisti, plane non reprehendo. 
Nunc vero in hibemis intectus mihi videris, itaque te 
commovere non curas. 

'Usquequaque sapere oportet; id erit telum 

acerrimum'. 

2 Ego si foris cenitarem, Cn. Octavio, familiari tuo, non 
defuissem ; cui tamen dixi, cum me aUquotiens invitaret : 
'Oro te, quis tu es?' Sed mehercules extra iocum 
homo bellus est ; vellem eum tecum abduxisses. 

3 Quid agatis et ecquid in Italiam venturi sitis hac 
hieme, fac plane sciam. Balbus mihi confirmavit te 
divitem futurum. Id utrum Romano more locutus sit, 



CICERO'S LETTERS 43 

bene nummatum te futurum, an quo modo Stoici dicunt, 
omnes esse divites, qui caelo et terra frui possint, postea 
videro. Qui istinc veniunt, superbiam tuam accusant, 
quod negent te percontantibus respondere. Sed tamen 
est, quod gaudeas ; constat enim inter omnis neminem 
te uno Samarobrivae iuris peritiorem esse. 

XLIII. Ad Familiar es 7. lo 
M. CICERO S. D. TREBATIO. 

Legi tuas litteras, ex quibus intellexi te Caesari nostro 1 
valde iureconsultum videri. Est, quod gaudeas te in 
ista loca venisse, ubi aliquid sapere viderere. Quodsi 
in Britanniam quoque profectus esses, profecto nemo 
in ilia tanta insula peritior te fuisset. . Verum tamen 
(rideamus licet ; sum enim a te invitatus) subinvideo tibi 
ultro etiam accersitum ab eo, ad quern ceteri non propter 
superbiam eius, sed propter occupationem adspirare 
non possunt. Sed tu in ista epistula nihil mihi scripsisti2 
de tuis rebus, quae mehercule miW non minori curae 
sunt quam meae. Valde metuo, ne frigeas in hibernis. 
Quam ob rem camino luculento utendum censeo (idem 
Mucio et Manilio placebat), praesertim qui sagis non 
abundares. Quamquam vos nunc istic satis calere 
audio; quo quidem nuntio valde mehercule de te 
timueram. Sed tu in re militari multo es cautior quam 
in advocationibus, qui neque in Oceano natare volueris 
studiosissimus homo natandi neque spectare essedarios, 
quem antea ne andabata quidem defraudare poteramus. 
Sed iam satis iocati sumus. 

Ego de te ad Caesarem quam diligenter scripserim,3 



44 CICERO'S LETTERS 

tute scis, quam saepe, ego; sed mehercule iam inter- 
miseram, ne viderer liberalissimi hominis meique aman- 
tissimi voluntati erga me difl&.dere. Sed tamen iis litteris, 
quas proxime dedi, putavi esse hominem commonendum. 
Id feci ; quid profecerim, facias me velim certiorem et 
simul de toto statu tuo consiliisque omnibus ; scire enim 
cupio, quid agas, quid exspectes, quam longum istum 
4tuum discessum a nobis futurum putes. Sic enim tibi 
persuadeas veKm, imum mihi esse solacium, quare facilius 
possim pati te esse sine nobis, si tibi esse id emolument© 
sciam; sin autem id non est, nihil duobus nobis est 
stultius, me, qui te non Romam attraham, te, qui non 
hue advoles. Una mehercule nostra vel severa vel 
iocosa congressio pluris erit quam non modo hostes, sed 
etiam fratres nostri Haedui. Quare omnibus de rebus 
fac ut quam primum sciam. 

* Aut consolando aut consilio aut re itivero'. 

XLIV. Ad Familiar es 7. 12 
CICERO TREBATIO. 

1 Mirabar, quid esset, quod tu mihi litteras mittere 
intermisisses : indicavit mihi Pansa meus Epicureum te 
esse factum. O castra praeclara ! Quid tu fecisses, si te 
Tarentum et non Samarobrivam misissem? Iam turn 
mihi non placebas, cum idem tuebare quod Selius, 

2 familiaris meus. Sed quonam modo ius civile defendes, 
cum omnia tua causa facias, non civium? Ubi porro 
ilia erit formula fiduciae: 'vt inter bonds bene 
AGiER oportet'? quis enim est, qui facit nihil nisi sua 



CICERO^S LETTERS 45 

causa? Quod ius statues * commvni dividvndo', cuiil 
commune nihil possit esse apud eos, qui omnia voluptate 
sua metiuntur? Quo modo autem tibi placebit *Iovem 
LAPiDEM iurare\ cum scias lovem iratum esse nemini 
posse ? Quid fiet porro populo Ulubrano, si tu statueris 
TToXiTevea-dai non oportere? Quare, si plane a nobis 
deficis, moleste fero, sin Pansae adsentari commodumst, 
ignosco ; modo scribe aliquando ad nos, quid agas et a 
nobis quid fieri aut curari velis. 

XLV. Ad Atticum 5. i 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

Ego vero et tuum in discessu vidi animum et meo sum 1 
ipse testis. Quo magis erit tibi videndum, ne quid novi 
decematur, ut hoc nostrum desiderium ne plus sit 
annuum. De Annio Saturnino curasti probe. De satis 2 
dando vero te rogo, quoad eris Roihae, tu ut satis des. 
Et sunt aliquot satisdationes secundum mancipium, 
veluti Mennianorum praediorum vel Atilianorum. De 
Oppio factum est ut volui, et maxime quod DCCC 
aperuisti. Quae quidem ego utique vel versura facta 
solvi volo, ne extrema exactio nostrorum nominum ex- 
spectetur. 

Nunc venio ad transversum ilium extremae epistolae 3 
tuae versiculum, in quo me admones de sorore. Quae 
res se sic habet. Ut veni in Arpinas, cum ad me frater 
venisset, in primis nobis sermo isque multus de te fuit. 
Ex quo ego veni ad ea, quae fueramus ego et tu inter 
nos de sorore in Tusculano locuti. Nihil tam vidi mite, 
nihil tam placatum, quam tum mens frater erat in soro- 



46 CICERO'S LETTERS 

rem tuam, ut, etiam si qua fuerat ex ratione sumptus 
offensio, non appareret. lUe sic dies. Postridie ex 
Arpinati profecti sumus. Ut in Arcano Quintus maneret, 
dies fecit, ego Aquini, sed prandimus in Arcano. Nosti 
hunc fundum. Quo ut venimus, humanissime Quintus 
'Pomponia' inquit, *tu in vita mulieres, ego arcivero 
viros*. Nihil potuit, mihi quidem ut visum est, dulcius 
idque cum verbis tum etiam animo ac vultu. At ilia 
audientibus nobis 'Ego ipsa sum' inquit *hic hospita', id 
autem ex eo, ut opinor, quod antecesserat Statins, ut 
prandium nobis videret. Tum Quintus ' En ' inquit mihi 

4'haec ego patior cotidie'. Dices: 'Quid, quaeso, istuc 
erat?' Magnum; itaque me ipsum commoverat; sic 
absurde et aspere verbis vultuque responderat. Dis- 
simulavi dolens. Discubuimus omnes praeter illam, 
cui tamen Quintus de mensa misit. Ilia reiecit. Quid 
multa? nihil meo fratre lenius, nihil asperius tua sOrore 
mihi visum est; et multa praetereo, quae tum mihi 
maiori stomacho quam ipsi Quinto fuerunt. Ego inde 
Aquinum. Quintus in Arcano remansit et Aquinum 
ad me postridie mane venit mihique narravit nee secum 
illam dormire voluisse et, cum discessura esset, fuisse 
eius modi, qualem ego vidissem. Quid quaeris? vel 
ipsi hoc dicas licet, humanitatem ei meo iudicio illo 
die defuisse. 

Haec ad te scripsi fortasse pluribus, quam necesse fuit, 
ut videres tuas quoque esse partes instituendi et monendi. 

6 Reliquum est, ut, antequam proficiscare, mandata nostra 
exhaurias, scribas ad me omnia, Pomptinum extrudas, 
cum profectus eris, cures, ut sdam, sic habeas, nihil 



CICERO^S LETTERS 47 

mehercule te mihi nee carius esse nee suavius. A. 
Torquatum amantissime dimisi Minturnis, optimum 
virum; cui me ad te scripsisse aliquid in sermone sig- 
nifices velim. 

XLVI. Ad Familiar es 2. 11 

M. CICERO IMP. S. D. M. CAELIO AEDILI CURULI. 

Putaresne umquam accidere posse, ut mihi verbal 
dessent, neque solum ista vestra oratoria, sed haec etiam 
levia nostratia? Desunt autem propter hanc causam, 
quod mirifice sum sollicitus, quidnam de provinciis 
decematur. Mirum me desiderium tenet urbis, incredi- 
bile meorum atque in primis tui,satietas autem provinciae, 
vel quia videmur eam famam consecuti, ut non tam 
accessio quaerenda quam fortuna metuenda sit, vel quia 
totum negotium non est dignum viribus nostris, qui 
maiora onera in re publica sustinere et possim et soleam, 
vel quia belli magni timor impendet, quod videmur 
effugere, si ad constitutam diem decedemus. 

De pantheris per eos, qui venari solent, agitur mandatU2 
meo diligenter ; sed mira paucitas est, et eas, quae sunt, 
valde aiunt queri, quod nihil cuiquam insidiarum in 
mea provincia nisi sibi fiat. Itaque constituisse dicuntur 
in Cariam ex nostra provincia decedere. Sed tamen 
sedulo fit et in primis a Patisco. Quicquid erit, tibi.erit, 
sed, quid esset, plane nesciebamus. Mihi mehercule 
magnae curae est aediUtas tua ; ipse dies me admonebat ; 
scripsi enim haec ipsis Megalensibus. Tu veUm ad me 
de omni rei publicae statu quam diUgentissime per- 
scribas ; ea enim certissima putabo, quae ex te cognoro. 



48 CICERO'S LETTERS 

XLVII. Ad Atticum 6. 4 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

1 Tarsum venimus Nonis luniis. Ibi me multa mo- 
verunt, magnum in Syria bellum, magna in CiUcia 
latrocinia, mihi dijficilis ratio administrandi, quod pau- 
cos dies habebam reliquos annui muneris, illud autem 
dijficillimum, relinquendus erat ex senatus consulto, 
qui praeesset. Nihil minus probari poterat quam 
quaestor Mescinius. Nam de Caelio nihil audiebamus. 
Rectissimum videbatur f ratrem cum imperio relinquere ; 
in quo multa molesta, discessus noster, belli periculum, 
militum improbitas, sescenta praeterea. O rem totam 
odiosam! Sed haec fortuna viderit, quoniam consilio 
non multum uti licet. 

2 Tu, quando Romam salvus, ut spero, venisti, vide- 
bis, ut soles, omnia, quae intelleges nostra interesse, 
imprimis de Tullia mea, cuius de condicione quid mihi 
placeret, scripsi ad Terentiam, cum tu in Graecia esses ; 
deinde de honore nostro. Quod enim tu afuisti, vereor, 
ut satis diligenter actum in senatu sit de litteris meis. 

3 Illud praeterea fivarcfcoiTepov ad te scribam, tu sa- 
gacius odorabere. T^9 hd^iapro^; fiov 6 aireXevOepo^ {olaOa, 
hv Xeyo)) eSo|e fioi irpwr^v^ i^ &v aXoyevo/Mevof; Trapef^Od^- 
7€T0, 7r€(f)VpafC€vaL ra^ '\jn](f)ov<; etc ttj^ Q)vrj<% t&v x/jrap'xpv- 

TQ)V TOV KpOTCJVLaTOV TVpaVVOKTOVOV, AcBoLfCa Bl]f flT^ Tl 

vjijarj^. EI9 BrJTTOV tovto Sfj TrepLa-fceyjrd/jLevo^ ra Xoiira 
i^aa<j>d\iaai.. Non queo tantum, quantum vereor, scri- 
bere ; tu autem fac, ut mihi tuae litterae volent obviae. 
Haec festinans scripsi in itinere atque agmine. Piliae 
et puellae Caeciliae beUissimae salutem dices. 



CICERO'S LETTERS 49 

XLVIII. Ad Familiar es 16. i 

TULLIUS TIRONI SUO S. P. D. ET CICERO MEUS ET FRATER 

ET FRATRIS F. 

Paulo facilius putavi posse me ferre desiderium 1 
tui, sed plane non fero et, quamquam magni ad hono- 
rem nostrum interest quam primum ad urbem me ve- 
nire, tamen peccasse mihi videor, qui a te discesserim ; 
sed, quia tua voluntas ea videbatur esse, ut prorsus 
nisi confirmato corpore nolles navigare, adprobavi tuum 
consilium neque nunc muto, si tu in eadem es sen- 
tentia ; sin autem, posteaquam cibum cepisti, videris 
tibi posse me consequi, tuum consilium est. Marionem 
ad te eo misi, ut aut tecum ad me quam primum veniret 
aut, si tu morarere, statim ad me rediret. Tu autem 2 
hoc tibi persuade, si commodo valetudinis tuae fieri 
possit, nihil me malle quam te esse mecum ; si autem 
intelleges opus esse te Patris convalescendi causa paulum 
commorari, nihil me malle quam te valere. Si statim 
navigas, nos Leucade consequere ; sin te confirmare vis, 
et comites et tempestates et navem idoneam ut habeas, 
diligenter videbis. Unum illud, mi Tiro, videto, si me 
amas, ne te Marionis adventus et hae litterae moveant. 
Quod valetudini tuae maxime conducet, si feceris, 
maxime optemperaris voluntati meae. Haec pro tuos 
ingenio considera. Nos ita te desideramus, ut amemus ; 
amor, ut valentem videamus, hortatur, desiderium, ut 
quam primum ; illud igitur potius. Cura ergo potis- 
simum, ut valeas. De tuis innumerabilibus in me 
officiis erit hoc gratissimum. Ill Non. Nov. 



50 CICERO^S LETTERS 

XLIX. Ad Atticum 8. 13 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

1 Lippitudinis meae signum tibi sit librari manus et 
eadem causa brevitatis; etsi nunc quidem, quod scri- 
berem, nihil erat. Oninis exspectatio nostra erat 
in nuntiis Brundisinis. Si nanctus hie esset Gnaeum 
nostrum, spes dubia pads, sin ille ante tramisisset, 
exitiosi belli metus. Sed videsne, in quern hominem 
incident res publica, quam acutum, quam vigilantem, 
quam para turn? Si mehercule neminem occiderit nee 
cuiquam quicquam ademerit, ab iis, qui eum maxime 

2 timuerant, maxime diUgetur. Multum mecum munici- 
pales homines loquuntur, multum rusticani ; nihil pror- 
sus aliud curant nisi agros, nisi villulas, nisi nummulos 
suos. Et vide, quam con versa res sit; ilium, quo 
antea confidebant, metuunt, hunc amant, quem time- 
bant. Id quantis nostris peccatis vitiisque evenerit, 
non possum sine moles tia cogitare. Quae autem im- 
pendere putarem, scripseram ad te et iam tuas litteras 

exspectabam. 

L. Ad Familiares 14. 12 

TULLIUS TERENTIAE SUAE S. D. 

Quod nos in ItaUam salvos venisse gaudes, perpetuo 
gaudeas velim ; sed perturbati dolore animi magnis- 
que iniuriis metuo ne id consili ceperimus, quod non 
facile explicare possimus. Quare, quantum potes, ad- 
iuva; quid autem possis, mihi in mentem non venit. 
In viam quod te des hoc tempore, nihil est. Et longum 
est iter et non tutum, et non video, quid prodesse possis, 
si veneris. Vale. D. pr. Non. Nov. Brundisio. 



CICERO'S LETTERS 51 

LI. Ad Familiar es 14. 15 
TULLIUS S. D. TERENTIAE. 

Si vales, benest. Constitueramus, ut ad te antea 
scripseram, obviam Ciceronem Caesari mittere, sed 
mutavimus consilium, quia de illius adventu nihil au- 
diebamus. De ceteris rebus, ctsi nihil erat novi, tamen, 
quid velimus et quid hoc tempore putemus opus esse, ex 
Sicca poteris cognoscere. Tulliam adhuc mecum teneo. 
Valetudinem tuam cura diligenter. Vale. XII K. 
Quinctiles. 

LIL Ad Familiares 14. 20 
TULLIUS S. D. TERENTIAE SUAE. 

In Tusculanum nos venturos putamus aut Nonis aut 
postridie. Ibi ut sint omnia parata (plures enim for- 
tasse nobiscum erunt, et, ut arbitror, diutius ibi com- 
morabimur) ; labrum si in balineo non est, ut sit, item 
cetera, quae sunt ad victum et ad valetudinem neces- 
saria. Vale. K. Oct. de Venusino. 

LIII. Ad Familiares 9. 18 
CICERO S. D. [L. PAPIRIO] PAETO. 

Cum essem otiosus in Tusculano, propterea quodi 
discipulos obviam miseram, ut eadem me quam ma- 
xime conciliarent familiari suo, accepi tuas litteras 
plenissimas suavitatis; ex quibus intellexi probari tibi 
meum consilium, quod, ut Dionysius tyrannus, cum 
Syracusis pulsus esset, Corinthi dicitur ludum aperuisse, 
sic ego sublatis iudiciis amisso regno forensi ludum 
quasi habere coeperim. Quid quaeris ? me quoque delec- 2 
tat consilium ; multa enim consequor. Primum, id quod 



52 CICERO^S LETTERS 

maxime nunc opus est, munio me ad haec tempora. 
Id cuius modi sit, nescio ; tantum video, nullius adhuc 
consilium me huic anteponere; nisi forte mori meKus 
fuit. In lectulo, fateor, sed non accidit ; in ^cie non f ui ; 
ceteri quidem, Pompeius, Lentulus tuus, Scipio, Afranius 
foede perierunt. At Cato praeclare. lam istuc quidem, 
cum volemus, licebit; demus modo operam, ne tarn 

3 necesse nobis sit, quam illi fuit, id quod agimus. Ergo 
hoc primum. Sequitur illud : ipse melior fio primum 
valetudine, quam intermissis exercitationibus amiseram ; 
deinde ipsa ilia, si qua fuit in me, facultas orationis, nisi 
me ad has exercitationes rettulissem, exaruisset. Ex- 
tremum illud est, quod tu nescio an primum putes : 
pluris iam pavones confeci quam tu puUos columbinos. 
Tu is tic te Hateriano iure delectas, ego me hie Hirtiano. 
Veni igitur, si vir es, et disce a me irpoXeyofieva^, quas 

4quaeris; etsi sus Minervam. Sed quo modo, videro. 
Si aestimationes tuas vendere non potes neque ollam 
denariorum implere, Romam tibi remigrandum est; 
satius est hie cruditate quam istic fame. Video te bona 
perdidisse; spero idem istuc familiares tuos. Actum 
igitur de te est, nisi provides. Potes mulo isto, queni 
tibi reliquum dicis esse, quoniam cantherium comedisti, 
Romam pervehi. Sella tibi erit in ludo tamquam hypo- 
didascalo proxima ; eam pulvinus sequetur. 

LIV. Ad Familiares 9. 20 
CICERO PAETO. 

1 Dupliciter delectatus sum tuis litteris, et quod ipse 
risi et quod te intellexi iam posse ridere ; me autem a te 



CICERO'S LETTERS S3 

ut scurram velitem malis oneratum esse non moleste 
tuli ; illud doleo, in ista loca venire me, ut constitueram, 
non potuisse ; habuisses enim non hospitem, sed contu- 
bemalem. At quern virum ! non eum, quern tu es 
solitus promulside conficere; integram famem ad ovum 
adfero, itaque usque ad assum vitulinum opera perdu- 
citur. Ilia mea, quae solebas antea laudare, ' O hominem 
f acilem ! o hospitem non gravem ! ' abierunt ; nam omnem 
nostram dc re p. curam, cogitationem de dicenda in 
senatu sententia, commentationem causarum abiecimus, 
in Epicuri nos, adversari nostri, castra coniecimus, nee 
tamen ad banc insolentiam, sed ad illam tuam lautitiam, 
veterem dico, cum in siimptum habebas ; etsi numquam 
plura praedia habuisti. Proinde te para ; cum homine et2 
edaci tibi res est, et qui iam aliquiid intellegat {oyjnfjLaOel^ 
autem homines scis quam insolehtes sint) ; dediscendae 
tibi sunt sportellae et artolagani tui^ Nos iam artis 
tantum habemus, ut Verrium tuum et Camillimi (qua 
munditia homines, qua elegantia !) vocare saepius au- 
deamus. Sed vide audaciam; etiam Hirtio cenam 
dedi, sine pavone tamen. In ea cena cocus mens praeter 
ius fervens nihil non potuit imitari. Haec igitur est 3 
nunc vita nostra : mane salutamus domi et bonos viros 
multos, sed tristis, et hos laetos victores, qui me quidem 
perofficiose et peramanter observant. Ubi salutatio 
defluxit, litteris me involvo, aut scribo aut lego ; veniunt 
etiam, qui me audiunt quasi doctum hominem, quia paulo 
sum quam ipsi doctior. Inde corpori omne tempus 
datur. Patriam eluxi iam et gravius et diutius quam 
uUa mater unicum filium. Sed cura, si me amas, ut 



54 CICERO'S LETTERS 

valeas, ne ego te iacente bona tua comedim; statui 
enim tibi ne aegroto quidem parcere. 

LV. Ad Familiares 4. 4 
M. CICERO S. D. SER. SULPICIO. 

1 Accipio excusationem tuam, qua usus es, cur saepius ad 
me litteras uno exemplo dedisses, sed accipio ex ea parte, 
quatenus aut neglegentia aut improbitate eorum, qui 
epistulas accipiant, fieri scribis, ne ad nos perferantur ; 
illam partem excusationis, qua te scribis 'orationis 
paupertate' (sic enim appellas) isdem verbis epistolas 
saepius mittere, nee nosco nee probo, et ego ipse, queni 
tu per iocum (sic enim accipio) *divitias orationis' 
habere dicis, me non esse verborum admodum inopem 
agnosco {elpcovevea-Ocu enim non necesse est), sed tamen 
idem (nee hoc elptovevofievosi) facile cedo tuorum scrip- 
torum subtilitati et elegantiae. 

2 Consilium tuum, quo te usum scribis hoc Achaicum 
negotium non recusavisse, cum semper probavissem, 
tum multo magis probavi lectis tuis proximis litteris; 
omnes enim causae, quas commemoras, iustissimae sunt 
tuaque et auctoritate et prudentia dignissimae. Quod 
aliter cecidisse rem existimas, atque opinatus sis, id tibi 
nuUo modo adsentior; sed, quia tanta perturbatio et 
confusio est rerum, ita perculsa et prostrata foedissimo 
bello iacent omnia, ut is cuique locus, ubi ipse sit, et 
sibi quisque miserrimus esse videatur, propterea et tui 
consili paenitet te, et nos, qui domi suiyius, tibi beati 
videmur, at contra nobis non tu quidem vacuus molestiis, 
sed prae nobis beatus. Atque hoc ipso melior est tua 



CICERO'S LETTERS 55 

quam nostra condicio, quod tu, quid doleat, scribere 
audes, nos ne id quidem tuto possumus, nee id victoris 
vitio, quo nihil moderatius, sed ipsius victoriae, quae 
civilibus bellis semper est insolens. 

Uno te vicimus, quod de Marcelli, coUegae tui, salutes 
paulo ante quam tu cognovimus, etiam mehercule 
quod, quem ad modum ea res ageretur, vidimus. Nam 
sic fac existimes, post has miserias, id est postquam armis 
disceptari coeptum sit de iure publico, nihil esse actum 
aliud cum dignitate. Nam et ipse Caesar accusata 
'acerbitate* Marcelli (sic enim appellabat) laudataque 
honorificentissime et aequitate tua et prudentia repente 
praeter spem dixit se senatui roganti de Marcello ne 
ominis quidem causa negaturum. Fecerat autem hoc 
senatus, ut, cum a L. Pisone mentio esset facta de M. 
Marcello, et C. Marcellus se ad Caesaris pedes abiecisset, 
cimctus consurgeret et ad Caesarem supplex accederet. 
Noli quaerere ; ita mihi pulcher hie dies visus est, ut 
speciem aliquam viderer videre quasi reviviscentis rei 
publieae. Itaque, cum omnes ante me rogati gratias4 
Caesari egissent praeter Volcacium (is enim, si eo loco 
esset, negavit se facturum fuisse), ego rogatus mutavi 
meum consilium. Nam statueram non mehercule inertia, 
sed desiderio pristinae dignitatis in perpetuum tacere. 
Fregit hoc meum consilium et Caesaris magnitudo animi 
et senatus officium; itaque pluribus verbis egi Caesari 
gratias, meque metuo ne etiam in ceteris rebus honesto 
otio privarim, quod erat unum solacium in malis. Sed 
tamen, quoniam effugi eius offensionem, qui fortasse 
arbitraretur me hane rem pubUcam non putare, si per- 



56 CICERO'S LETTERS 

* 

petuo tacerem, modice hoc faciam aut etiam intra mo- 
dum, ut et illius voluntati et meis studiis serviam. Nam, 
etsi a prima aetate me omnis ars et doctrina liberalis 
et maxime philosophia delectavit, tamen hoc studium 
cotidie ingravescit, credo, et aetatis maturitate ad' 
prudentiam et iis temporum vitiis, ut nulla res aha levare 
5 animum molestiis possit. A quo studio te abduci negotiis 
intellego ex tuis Utteris, sed tamen ahquid iam noctes te 
adiuvabunt. 

Servius tuus vel potius noster summa me observantia 
coUt ; cuius ego cum omni probitate summaque virtute 
tum studiis doctrinaque delector. Is mecum saepe de 
tua mansione aut decessione communicat. Adhuc in 
hac sum sententia, nihil ut faciamus, nisi quod maxime 
Caesar velle videatur. Res sunt eius modi, ut, si Romae 
sis, nihil praeter tuos delectare possit. De reliquis nihil 
melius ipso est Caesare; cetera sunt eius modi, ut, si 
alterum utrum necesse sit, audire ea maUs quam videre. 
Hoc nostrum consilium nobis minime iucundum est, 
qui te videre cupimus, sed consulimus tibi. Vale. 

LVI. Ad Familiares 4. 14 

M. CICERO S. D. CN. PLANCIO. 

1 Binas a te accepi litteras Corcyrae datas; quarum 
alteris mihi gratulabare, quod audisses me meam pris- 
tinam dignitatem optinere, alteris dicebas te velle, 
quae egissem, bene et feliciter evenire. Ego autem, 
si dignitas est bene de re publica sentire et bonis viris 
probare, quod sentias, optineo dignitatem meam ; sin 
autem in eo dignitas est, si, quod sentias, aut re efficere 



CICERO^S LETTERS 57 

possis aut denique libera oratione defendere, ne vestigium 
quidem uUum est reliquum nobis dignitatis, agiturque 
praeclare, si nosmet ipsos regere possumus, ut ea, quae 
partim iam adsunt, partim inpendent, moderate feramus ; 
quod est diflScile in eius modi bello, cuius exitus ex altera 
parte caedem ostentet, ex altera servitutem. Quo in 2 
periculo non nihil me consolatur, cum recordor haec 
me tum vidisse, cum secundas etiam res nostras, non 
modo adversas pertimescebam videbamque, quanto 
periculo de iure publico disceptaretur armis ; quibus si 
ii vicissent, ad quos ego pacis spe, non belli cupiditate 
adductus accesseram, tamen intellegebam, et iratorum 
hominum et cupidorum et insolentium quam crudelis 
esset futura victoria, sin autem victi essent, quantus 
interitus esset futurus civium partim amplissimorum, 
partim etiam optimorum, qui me haec praedicentem 
atque optime consulentem saluti suae malebant nimium 
timidum quam satis prudentem existimari. 

Quod autem mihi de eo, quod egerim, gratularis,3 
te ita velle certo scio ; sed ego tam misero tempore 
nihil novi consili cepissem, nisi in reditu meonihilo 
meliores res domesticas quam rem publicam ofifendissem. 
Quibus enim pro meis immortalibus beneficiis carissima 
mea .salus et meae fortunae esse debebant, cum propter 
eorum scelus nihil mihi intra meos parietes tutum, nihil 
insidiis vacuum viderem, novarum me necessitudinum 
fidelitate contra vetcrum perfidiam muniendum putavi. 
Sed de nostris rebus satis vcl etiam nimium multa. 

De tuis velim ut eo sis animo, quo debes esse, id est 4 
ut ne quid tibi praecipue timendum putes. Si enim 



58 CICERO^S LETTERS 

status erit aliquis civitatis, quicumque erit, te omnium 

periculorum video expertem fore ; nam alteros tibi iajm 

placatos esse intellego, alteros numquam iratos fuisse. 

De mea autem in te voluntate sic velim indices, me, 

quibuscumque rebus opus esse intellegam, quamquam 

videam, qui sim hoc tempore et quid possim, opera tamen 

et consilio, studio quidem certe rei, famae, saluti tuae 

praesto futurum. Tu velim, et quid agas et quid actu- 

rum te putes, facias me quam diligentissime certiorem. 

Vale. 

LVII. Ad Atticum 12. 15 

CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

Apud Appuleium, quoniam in perpetuum non placet, 
in dies ut excuser, videbis. In hac solitudine careo 
omnium coUoquio, cumque mane me in silvam abstrusi 
densam et asperam, non exeo inde ante vesperum. Se- 
cundum te nihil est mihi amicius solitudine. In ea 
mihi omnis sermo est cum litteris. Eum tamen inter- 
pellat fletus ; cui repugno, quoad possum, sed adhuc 
pares non sumus. Bruto, ut suades, rescribam. Eas 
litteras eras habebis. Cum erit, cui des, dabis. 

LVIII. Ad Atticum 12. 16 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

Te tuis negotiis relictis nolo ad me venire, ego potius 
accedam, si diutius impediere. Etsi ne discessissem 
quidem e conspectu tuo, nisi me plane nihil ulla res 
adiuvaret. Quodsi esset aliquod levamen, id esset in te 
uno, et, cum primum ab aUquo poterit esse, a te erit. 
Nunc tamen ipsum sine te esse non possum. Sed nee 



CICERO'S LETTERS 59 

tuae domi probabatur, nee meae poteram nee, si propius 
essem uspiam, tecum tamen essem. Idem enim te im- 
pediret, quo minus mecum esses, quod nunc etiam im- 
pedit. Mihi nihil adhuc aptius fuit hac solitudine ; 
quam vereor ne Philippus toUat. Heri enim vesperi 
venerat. Me scriptio et litterae non leniunt, sed ob- 
turbant. 

LIX. Ad Familiares 4. 5 
SERVIUS CICERONI S. 

Posteaquam mihi renuntiatum est de obitu TuUiae, 1 
fiUae tuae, sane quam pro eo, ac debui, graviter moles- 
teque tuli communemque eam calamitatem existimavi; 
qui, si istic adfuissem, neque tibi defuissem coramque 
meum dolorem tibi declarassem. Etsi genus hoc con- 
solationis miserum atque acerbum est, propterea quia, 
per quos ea confieri debet, propinquos ac familiaris, 
ii ipsi pari molestia adficiuntur neque sine lacrimis multis 
id conari possunt, uti magis ipsi videantur aliorum con- 
solatione indigere quam aliis posse suum officium prae- 
stare, tamen, quae in praesentiain mentem mihi venerunt, 
decrevi brevi ad te perscribere, non quo ea te fugere 
existimem, sed quod forsitan dolore impeditus minus 
ea perspicias. ^ 

Quid est, quod tan to opere te commoveat tuus dolor 2 
intestinus? Cogita, quem ad modum adhuc fortuna 
nobiscum egerit; ea nobis erepta esse, quae hominibus 
non minus quam liberi cara esse debent, patriam, hones- 
tatem, dignitatem, honores omnis. Hoc uno incom- 
modo addito quid ad dolorem adiungi potuit? aut qui 



6o CICERO^S LETTERS 

non in illis rebus exercitatus animus callere iam debet 
satque omnia minoris existimare? An illius vicem, 
cedo, doles? Quotiens in eam cogitationem necesse 
est et tu veneris et nos saepe incidimus, hisce temporibus 
non pessime cum iis esse actum, quibus sine dolore 
licitum est mortem cum vita commutare ! Quid autem 
fuit, quod illam hoc tempore ad vivendum magno opere 
in vi tare posset? quae res, quae spes, quod animi sola- 
cium? ut cum aliquo adulescente primario coniuncta 
aetatem gereret ? Licitum est tibi, credo, pro tua dignitate 
ex hac iuventute generum deligere, cuius fidei liberos 
tuos te tuto committere putares. An ut ea liberos ex 
sese pareret, quos cum florentis videret, laetaretur, qui 
rem a parente traditam per se tenere possent, honores 
ordinatim petituri essent in re publica in amicorum 
negotiis libertate sua usi? Quid horum fuit, quod non, 
priusquam datum est, ademptum sit? At vero malum 
est liberos amittere. Malum; nisi hoc peius est, haec 
sufferre et perpeti. 
4 Quae res mihi non mediocrem consolationem attulit, 
volo tibi commemorare, si forte eadem res tibi dolorem 
minuere possit. Ex Asia rediens cum ab Aegina Megaram 
versus navigarem, coepi regiones circumcirca prospicere. 
Post me erat Aegina, ante me Megara, dextra Piraeus, 
sinistra Corinthus, quae oppida quodam tempore florentis- 
sima fuerunt, nunc prostrata et diruta ante oculos iacent, 
Coepi egomet mecum sic cogitare : ^ Hem ! nos homun- 
culi indignamur, si quis nostrum interiit aut occisus est, 
quorum vita brevior esse debet, cum uno loco tot oppi- 
dum cadavera proiecta iacent? Visne tu te, Servi, 



CICERO^S LETTERS 6i 

cohibere et meminisse hominem te esse natum ? ' Crede 
mihi, cogitatione ea non mediocriter sum confirmatus. 
Hoc idem, si tibi videtur, fac aiite oculos tibi proponas. 
Modo uno tempore tot viri clarissimi interierunt, de 
imperio populi Romani tanta deminutio facta est, om- 
nes provinciae conquassatae sunt ; in unius mulierculae 
animula si iactura facta est, tanto opere commoveris? 
Quae si hoc tempore non diem suum obisset, paucis post 
annis tamen ei moriendum fuit, quoniam homo nata 
fuerat. Etiam tu ab hisce rebus animum ac cogita-5 
tionem tuam avoca atque ea potius reminiscere, quae 
digna tua persona simt, illam, quam diu ei opus fuerit, 
vixisse, una cum re publica fuisse, te, patrem suum, 
praetorem, consulem, augurem vidisse, adulescentibus 
primariis nuptam fuisse, omnibus bonis prope perfunc- 
tam esse, cum res publica occideret, vita excessisse. Quid 
est, quod tu aut ilia cum fortuna hoc nomine queri 
possitis? Denique noli te oblivisci Ciceronem esse et 
eum, qui aliis consueris praecipere et dare consilium, 
neque imitari malos medicos, qui in alienis morbis profi- 
tentur tenere se medicinae scientiam, ipsi se curare non 
possunt, sed potius, quae aliis tute praecipere soles, ea 
tute tibi subice atque apud animum propone. NuUuse 
dolor est, quem non longinquitas temporis minuat ac 
molliat. Hoc te exspectare tempus tibi turpe est ac non 
ei rei sapientia tua te occurrere. Quodsi qui etiam 
inferis sensus est, qui illius in te amor fuit pietasque in 
omnis suos, hoc certe ilia te facere non vult. Da hoc 
illi mortuae, da ceteris amicis ac familiaribus, qui tuo 
dolore maerent, da patriae, ut, si qua in re opus sit. 



62 CICERO'S LETTERS 

opera et consilio tuo uti possit. Denique, quoniam in 
earn fortunam devenimus, ut etiam huic rei nobis ser- 
viendum sit, noli committere, ut quisquam te putet non 
tarn filiam quam rei publicae tempora et aliorum vic- 
toriam lugere. 

Plura me ad te de hac re scribere pudet, ne videar 
prudentiae tuae diffidere. Quare, si hoc unum pro- 
posuero, finem faciam scribendi : vidimus aliquotiens 
secundam pulcherrime te ferre fortunam magnamque ex 
ea re te laudem apisci ; f ac aliquando intellegamus ad- 
versam quoque te aeque ferre posse, neque id maius, 
quam debeat, tibi onus videri, ne ex omnibus virtutibus 
haec una tibi videatur deesse. 

Quod ad me attinet, cum te tranquilliorem animo esse 
cognoro, de iis rebus, quae hie geruntur, quem ad modum- 
que se provincia habeat, certiorem faciam. Vale. 

LX. Ad Atticum 12. 32 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

1 Publilia ad me scripsit matrem suam, ut cum Publilio 
loquerer, ad me cum illo venturam et se una, si ego 
paterer. Orat multis et suppUcibus verbis, ut liceat, et 
ut sibi rescribam. Res quam molesta sit, vides. Re- 
scripsi mi etiam gravius esse quam tum, cum illi dixissem 
me solum esse velle ; quare nolle me hoc tempore earn 
ad me venire. Putabam, si nihil rescripsissem, illam 
cum matre venturam ; nunc non puto. Apparebat enim 
illas litteras non esse ipsius. Illud autem, quod fore 
video, ipsum volo vitare, ne illae ad me veniant, et una 
est vitatio, ut ego avolem. Nollem, sed necesse est. 



CICERO'S LETTERS 63 

Te hoc nunc rogo, ut explores, ad quam diem hie ita 
possim esse, ut ne opprimar. Ages, ut scribis, temperate. 

Ciceroni veUm hoc proponas, ita tamen, si tibi non2 
iniquum videbitur, ut sumptus huius peregrinationis, 
quibus, si Romae esset domumque conduceret, quod 
facere cogitabat, facile contentus futurus erat, accom- 
modet ad mercedes Argileti et Aventini, et, cum ei 
proposueris, ipse velim reliqua moderere, quem ad 
modum ex iis mercedibus suppeditemus ei, quod opus sit. 
Praestabo nee Bibulum nee Acidinum nee Messallam, 
quos Athenis futuros audio, maiores sumptus facturos, 
quam quod ex eis mercedibus recipietur. Itaque veUm 
videas, primum conductores qui sint et quanti, deinde 
ut sint, qui ad diem solvant, et quid viatici, quid instru- 
menti satis sit. lumento certe Athenis nihil opus est. 
Quibus autem in via utatur, domi sunt plura, quam opus 
erit, quod etiam tu animadvertis. 

LXI. Ad Familiares 4. 6 
M. CICERO S. D. SERV. SULPICIO. 

Ego vero, Servi, vellem, ut scribis, in meo gravissimo 1 
casu adfuisses; quantum enim praesens me adiuvare 
potueris et consolando et prope aeque dolendo, facile ex 
eo intellego, quod litteris lectis aliquantum adquievi. 
Nam et ea scripsisti, quae levare luctum possent, et 
in me consolando non mediocrem ipse animi dolorem 
adhibuisti. Servius tamen tuus omnibus officiis, quae illi 
tempori tribui potuerunt, declaravit, et quanti ipse 
me faceret et quam suum talem erga me animum tibi 
gratimi putaret fore. Cuius officia iucundiora scilicet 



64 CICERO^S LETTERS 

saepe mihi fuerunt, numquam tamen gratiora. Me 
autem non oratio tua solum et societas paene aegritudinis, 
sed etiam auctoritas consolatur ; turpe enim esse existimo 
mc non ita ferre casum meum, ut tu tali sapientia praedi- 
tus ferendum putas. Sed opprimor interdum et vix 
resisto dolori, quod ea me solacia deficiunt, quae ceteris, 
quorum mihi exempla propono, simili in fortuna non 
defuerunt. Nam et Q. Maximus, qui filium consularem, 
clarum virum et magnis rebus gestis, amisit, et L. 
PauUus, qui duo septem diebus, et vester Galus et M. 
Cato, qui summo ingenio, summa virtute filium perdidit, 
iis temporibus fuerunt, ut eorum luctum ipsorum 
dignitas consolaretur ea, quam ex re publica conseque- 
2bantur; mihi autem amissis omamentis iis, quae ipse 
commemoras, quaeque eram maximis laboribus adeptus, 
unum manebat illud solacium, quod ereptum est. Non 
amicorum negotiis, non rei publicae procuratione im- 
pediebantur cogitationes meae, nihil in foro agere libebat, 
aspicere curiam non poteram, existimabam, id quod erat, 
omnis me et industriae meae fructus et fortunae perdi- 
disse. Sed, cum cogitarem haec mihi tecum et cum 
quibusdam esse communia, et cum frangerem iam ipse 
me cogeremque ilia ferre toleranter, habebam, quo 
confugerem, ubi conquiescerem, cuius in sermone et 
suavitate omnis curas doloresque deponerem. Nunc 
autem hoc tam gravi vulnere etiam ilia, quae consanuisse 
videbantur, recrudescunt ; non enim, ut tum me a re 
publica maestum domus excipiebat, quae levaret, sic 
nunc domo maerens ad rem publicam confugere possum, 
ut in eius bonis adquiescam. Itaque et domo absum 



CICERO^S LETTERS 65 

et foro, quod nee eum dolorem, quern de re publica capio, 
domus iam consolari potest nee domesticum res pubUca. 

Quo magis te exspecto teque videre quam primums 
cupio; mains mihi solacium adferre ratio nulla potest 
quam coniunctio consuetudinis sermonumque nostrorum ; 
quamquam sperabam tuum adventum (sic enim audie- 
bam) adpropinquare. Ego autem cum multis de causis 
te exopto quam primum videre, tum etiam ut ante com- 
mentemur inter nos, qua ratione nobis traducendum sit 
hoc tempus, quod est totum ad unius voluntatem ac- 
commodandum et prudentis et liberalis et, ut perspexisse 
videor, nee a me alieni et tibi amicissimi. Quod cum 
ita sit, magnae tamen est deliberationis, quae ratio sit 
ineunda nobis non agendi aliquid, sed illius coneessu et 
beneficio quieseendi. Vale. 

LXII. Ad Atticum 13. 13 
CICERO ATTICO SAI.. 

Commotus tuis litteris, quod ad me de Varrone scrip- 1 
seras, totam Academiam ab hominibus nobilissimis 
abstuli, transtuli ad nostrum sodalem et ex duobus libris 
contuli in quattuOr. Grandiores sunt omnino, quam 
erant illi, sed tamen multa detracta. Tu autem mihi 
perveUm scribas, qui intellexeris ilium velle ; illud vero 
utique scire cupio, quem intellexeris ab eo ^rfKoTvirelaOat 
nisi forte Brutum. Id hercle restabat ! Sed tamen 
scire perveUm. Libri quidem ita exierunt, nisi forte me 
communis (f>t\avTLa decipit, ut in tah genere ne apud 
Graecos quidem simile quicquam. Tu illam iacturam 
feres aequo animo, quod ilia, quae habes de Academi- 



66 CICERO'S LETTERS 

cis, frustra descripta sunt. Multo tamen haec erunt 

2 splendidiora, breviora, meliora. Nunc autem aTro/xS, 
quo me vertam. Volo Dolabellae valde desideranti; 
non reperio, quid, et simul ^ a^Seo/iat T/xSa? ' neque, si 
aliquid, potero fiefi^^nv efifugere. Aut cessandum igitur 
aut aliquid excogitandum. Sed quid haec levia cura- 
mus? 

3 Attica mea, obsecro te, quid agit? Quae me valde 
angit. Sed crebro regusto tuas litteras ; in his acquiesce. 
Tamen exspecto novas. 

LXIII. Ad Familiares 9. 8 
CICERO VARRONI. 

1 Etsi munus flagitare, quamvis quis ostenderit, ne 
populus quidem solet nisi concitatus, tamen ego ex- 
spectatione promissi tui moveor, ut admoneam te, non 
ut flagitem. Misi autem ad te quattuor admonitores non 
nimis verecundos ; nosti enim profecto os illius adules- 
centioris Academiae. Ex ea igitur media excitatos misi ; 
qui metuo ne te forte flagitent ; ego autem mandavi, ut 
rogarent. Exspectabam omnino iam diu meque sustine- 
bam, ne ad te prius ipse quid scriberem, quam aliquid 
accepissem, ut possem te remunerari quam simillimo 
munere; sed, cum tu tardius faceres, id est, ut ego 
interprfetor, diligentius, teneri non potui, quin coniunc- 
tionem studiorum amorisque nostri, quo possem litte- 
rarum genere, declararem. Feci igitur sermonem inter 
nos habitum in Cumano, cum essetuna Pomponius ; tibi 
dedi partes Antiochinas, quas a te probari intellexisse 
mihi videbar; mihi sumpsi Philonis. Puto fore ut, 



CICERO^S LETTERS 67 

cum legeris, mirere nos id locutos esse inter nos, quod 
numquam locuti sumus; sed nosti morem dialogorum. 
Posthac autem, mi Varro, quam plurima, si videtiir, et2 
de nobis inter nos, sero fortasse; sed superiorum tem- 
porum Fortima rei p. causam sustineat ; haec ipsi prae- 
stare debemus. Atque utinam quietis temporibus atque 
aliquo, si non bono, at saltem certo statu civitatis haec 
inter nos studia exercere possemus! quamquam tum 
quidem vel aliae quaepiam rationes honestas nobis et 
curas et actiones darent; nunc autem quid est, sine 
his cur vivere velimus? mihi vero cum his ipsis vix, 
his autem detractis ne vix quidem. Sed haec coram 
et saepius. Migrationem et emptionem f eliciter evenire 
volo tuumque in ea re consilium probo. Cura, ut valeas. 

LXIV. Ad Familiares 7. 24 
M. CICERO S. D. M. FADIO GALLO. 

Amoris quidem tui, quoquo me verti, vestigia, veil 
proxime de Tigellio; sensi enim ex litteris tuis valde 
te laborasse. Amo igitur voluntatem. Sed pauca de 
re. Cipius, opinor, ohm: *Non omnibus dormio'. 
Sic ego non omnibus, mi Galle, servio. Etsi quae est 
haec servitus? OHm, cum regnare existimabamur, non 
tam ab ullis quam hoc tempore observor a familia- 
rissimis Caesaris omnibus praeter istum. Id ego in lucris 
pono, non ferre hominem pestilentiorem patria sua ; eum- 
que addictum iam tum puto esse Calvi Licini Hip- 
ponacteo praeconio. At vide, quid suscenseat. Phameae 2 
causam receperam ipsius quidem causa ; erat enim mihi 
sane familiaris. Is ad me venit dixitque iudicem sibi 



68 CTCERO'S LETTERS 

operam dare constituisse eo ipso die, quo de P. Sestio in 
consiliiim iri necesse erat. Respondi nullo modo me 
facere posse; quern vellet, alium diem si sumpsisset, 
me ei non defuturum. Die autem, qui sdret se nepotem 
bellum tibidnem habere et sat bonimi unctorem, dis- 
cessit a me, ut mihi videbatur, iratior. Habes *Sardos 
vaiales aliimi alio nequiorem '. Cognosti meam causam 
et istius salaconis iniquitatem. *Catonem' tuum inihi 
mitte ; cupio enim l^ere. Me adhuc non l^isse turpe 
utrique nostrum est. 

LXV. Ad Atticom 13. 52 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

1 O hospitem mihi tam gravem a/iera/ieXi/Toi/ ! Fuit 
enim periucunde. Sed, ami seomdis Satumalibus ad 
Philippmn ve^)eri venisset, villa ita completa a militibus 
est, ut vix triclinium, ubi cenaturus ipse Ca^esar esset, 
vacaret, quippe hominum CI3 CIO. Sane sum com- 
motus, quid futurum esset postridie; ac mihi Barba 
Cassius subvenit, custodes dedit. Castra in agro, \illa 
defensa est. Ille tertiis Satumalibus £^ud Philippum ad 
h. \TI nee quemquam admisit; rationes, (q)inor, cum 
Balbo. Inde ambulavit in litore. Post h. VLII in 
balneum. Tum audi\it de Mamurra, vniltum non mu- 
taxit. L'nctus est, accubuit. ^Efi€Tixr)v agebat. Ita- 
que et etlit el bihil a&ftk el iucunde, opijxire sane et 
ap|xirale nee id si>luni, sod 

'bene cocto et 
condito sermone bono et, si quaeris, libenter'. 



CICERO'S LETTERS 69 

Praeterea tribus tricliniis accepti ol irepl avrov valde2 
copiose. Libertis minus lautis servisque nihil defuit. 
Nam lautiores eleganter accepi. Quid multa? homines 
visi sumus. Hospes tamen non is, cui diceres : ^ Amabo 
te, eodcm ad me, cum revertere \ Semel satis est. 
^TTovhalov ovSkv in sermone, <f)tXdXoya multa. Quid 
quaeris? delectatus est et Ubenter fuit. Puteolis se 
aiebat imum diem fore, alterum ad Baias. 

Habes hospitium sive eirLaradfielav odiosam mihi, 
dixi, non molestam. Ego pauUsper hie, deinde in Tus- 
culanum. Dolabellae villam cum praeteriret, omnis 
armatormn copia dextra, sinistra ad equum nee usquam 
alibi. Hoc ex Nicia. 

LXVI. Ad Familiares 7. 31 
CICERO CURIO S. D. 

Facile perspexi ex tuis litteris, quod semper stu-i 
dui, et me a te plurimi fieri et te intellegere, quam mihi 
cams esses. Quod quoniam uterque nostrum con- 
secutus est, reliquum est, ut officiis certemus inter nos ; 
quibus aequo animo vel vincam te vel vincar aps te. 
Acilio non fuisse necesse meas dari Utteras facile patior ; 
Sulpici tibi operam intellego ex tuis Utteris non multum 2 
opus fuisse propter tuas res ita contractas, ut, quem ad 
modum scribis, ^ nee caput nee pedes '. Equidem vellem, 
uti pedes haberent, ut aliquando redires. Vides enim 
exaruisse iam veterem urbanitatem, ut Pomponius 
noster suo iure possit dicere : 

'Nisi nos pauci retineamus gloriam antiquam 

Atticam'. 



70 CICERO'S LETTERS 

Ergo is tibi, nos ei succedimus. Veni igitur, quaeso, 
ne tamen semen urbanitatis una cum re p. intereat. 

LXVII. Ad Familiares 6. 15 
CICERO BASILO SAL. 

Tibi gratulor, mihi gaudeo ; te amo, tua tueor ; a te 
amari et, qu;d agas, quidque agatur, certior fieri volo. 

LXVIII. Ad Familiares 7. 22 

CICERO TREBATIO S. 

Inluseras heri inter scyphos, quod dixeram controver- 
siam esse, possetne heres, quod furtum antea factum es- 
set, furti recte agere. Itaque, etsi domum bene potus 
seroque redieram, tamen id caput, ubi haec controversia 
est, notavi et descriptum tibi misi, ut scires id, quod tu 
neminem sensisse dicebas. Sex. Aelium, M'. Manilium, 
M. Brutum sensisse. Ego tamen Scaevolae et Testae 
adsentior. 

LXIX. Ad Atticum 16. 5 
CICERO ATTICO SAL. 

1 Tuas iam litteras Brutus exspectabat. Cui quidem 
ego non novum attuleram de * Tereo ' Acci. Ille ^ Brutum ' 
putabat. Sed tamen rumoris nescio quid adflaverat 
commissione Graecorum frequentiam non fuisse; quod 
quidem me minime fefellit; scis enim, quid ego de 
Graecis ludis existimem. 

2 Nunc audi, quod pluris est quam omnia. Quintus 
fuit mecum dies complures, et, si ego cuperem, ille vel 



CICERO'S LETTERS 71 

plures fuisset ; sed, quam diu fuit, incredibile est, quam 
me in omni genere delectarit in eoque maxime, in quo 
minime satis faciebat. Sic enim commutatus est totus 
et scriptis meis quibusdam, quae in manibus habebam, et 
adsiduitate orationis et praeceptis, ut taK animo in rem 
publicam, quali nos volumus, futurus sit. Hoc cum 
mihi non modo confirmasset, sed etiam persuasisset, egit 
mecum accurate multis verbis, tibi ut sponderem se dig- 
num et te et nobis futurum; neque se postulare, ut 
statim crederes, sed, cum ipse perspexisses, tum ut se 
amares. Quodnisi fidem mihi fecisset, iudicassemque 
hoc, quod dico, firmum fore, non fecissem id, quod 
dicturus sum. Duxi enim mecum adulescentem ad 
Brutum. Sic ei probatum est, quod ad te scribo, ut 
ipse crediderit, me sponsorem accipere noluerit eumque 
laudans amicissime mentionem tui fecerit, complexus 
osculatusque dimiserit. Quam ob rem, etsi magis est, 
quod gratuler tibi, quam quod te rogem, tamen etiam 
rogo, ut, si quae minus antea propter infirmitatem aetatis 
constanter ab eo fieri videbantur, ea indices ilium abie- 
cisse mihique credas multum allaturam vel plurimum 
potius ad illius indicium confirmandum auctoritatem 
tuam. 

Bruto cum saepe iniecissem de ofioifKoia, non per- 3 
inde, atque ego putaram, arripere visus est. Existi- 
mabam fierecopoTepov esse, et hercule erat et maxime 
de ludis. At mihi, cum ad villam redissem, Cn. Lucceius, 
qui multum utitur Bruto, narravit ilium valde morari 
non tergiversantem, sed exspectantem, si qui forte casus. 
Itaque dubito, an Venusiam tendam et ibi exspectem de 



72 CICERO'S LETTERS 

legionibus. Si aberunt, ut quidam arbitrantur, Hy- 
druntem, si neutrum erit aat^aXe;^ eodem revertar. 
locari me putas? Moriar, si quisquam me tenet praeter 

4te. Etenim circumspice, sed antequam erubesco. O 
dies in auspiciis Lepidi lepide descriptos et apte ad con- 
silium reditus nostri ! Magna poirr] ad proficiscendum in 
tuis Ktteris. Atque utinam te illic ! Sed ut conducere 
putabis. 

5 Nepotis epistulam exspecto. Cupidus ille meorum? 
qui ea, quibus maxime yavpcA, legenda non putet. Et 
ais ^fi€T afjLvfjLova^ I Tu vero ^a/jLv/jL(t)v\ ille quidem 
^afi^poTO(;\ Mearum epistularum nulla est <rvvay(oy7]j 
sed habet Tiro instar septuaginta; et quidem sunt a 
te quaedam sumendae. Eas ego oportet perspiciam, 
corrigam. Tum denique edentur. 

LXX. Ad Familiares ii. 28 
MATIUS CICERONI S. 

1 Magnam voluptatem ex tuis Ktteris cepi, quod, quam 
speraram atque optaram, habere te de me opinionem 
cognovi; de qua etsi non dubitabam, tamen, quia 
maximi aestimabam, ut incorrupta maneret, laborabam. 
Conscius autem mihi eram nihil a me commissum esse, 
quod boni cuiusquam offenderet animum. Eo minus 
credebam plurimis atque optimis artibus ornato tibi 
temere quicquam persuaderi potuisse, praesertim in 
quern mea propensa et perpetua fuisset atque esset 
benevolentia. Quod quoniam, ut volui, scio esse, re- 
spondebo criminibus, quibus tu pro me, ut par erat tua 
singulari bonitate et amicitia nostra, saepe restitisti. 



CICERO'S LETTERS * 73 

Nota enim mihi sunt, quae in me post Caesaris mortem 2 
contulerint. Vitio mihi dant, quod mortem hominis 
necessarii graviter fero atque eum, quem dilexi, perisse 
indignor; aiunt enim patriam amicitiae praeponendam 
esse, proinde ac si iam vicerint obitum eius rei p. fuisse 
utilem. Sed non agam astute; fateor me ad istum 
gradum sapientiae non pervenisse ; neque enim Caesarem 
in dissensione civili sum secutus, sed amicum; quam- 
quam re oflfendebar, tamen non deserui, neque helium 
umquam civile aut etiam causam dissensionis prohavi, 
quam etiam nascentem exstingui summe studui. Itaque 
in victoria hominis necessarii neque honoris neque 
pecuniae dulcedine sum captus, quibus praemiis reliqui, 
minus apud eum quam ego cum possent, immoderate 
sunt abusi. Atque etiam res familiaris mea lege Caesaris 
deminuta est, cuius beneficio plerique, qui Caesaris morte 
laetantur, remanserunt in civitate. Civibus victis ut 
parceretur, aeque ac pro mea salute laboravi. 

Possum igitur, qui omnis voluerim incolumis, eum, 3 
a quo id impetratum est, perisse non indignari? cum 
praesertim idem homines illi et invidiae et exitio fuerint. 
^Plecteris ergo\ inquiunt, ^quoniam factum nostrum 
improbare audes\ O superbiam inauditam alios in 
facinore gloriari, aliis ne dolere quidem impunite licere ! 
At haec etiam servis semper libera fuerunt, ut timerent, 
gauderent, dolerent suo potius quam alterius arbitrio; 
quae nunc, ut quidem isti dictitant, Uibertatis auctores' 
metu nobis extorquere conantur. Sed nihil agunt;4 
nullius umquam periculi terroribus ab officio aut ab 
humanitate desciscam; numquam enim honestam mor- 



74 CICERO'S LETTERS 

tern fugiendam, saepe etiam oppetendam putavi. Sed 
quid mihi suscensent, si id opto, ut paeniteat eos sui 
facti? Cupio enim Caesaris mortem omnibus esse 
acerbam. 

At debeo pro civiK parte rem p. velle salvam. Id 
quidem me cupere, nisi et ante acta vita et reKqua mea 
spes tacente me probat, dicendo vincere non postulo. 

sQuare maiorem in modum te rogo, ut rem potiorem 
oratione ducas mihique, si sentis expedire recte fieri, 
credas nuUam communionem cum improbis esse posse. 
An, quod adulescens praestiti, cum etiam errare cum 
excusatione possem, id nunc aetate praecipitata commu- 
tem ac me ipse retexam? Non faciam neque, quod 
displiceat, committam, praeterquam quod hominis mihi 
coniunctissimi ac viri amplissimi doleo gravem casum. 
Quodsi aliter essem animatus, numquam, quod facerem, 
negarem, ne et in peccando improbus et in dissimulando 
timidus ac vanus existimarer. 

6 At ludos, quos Caesaris victoriae Caesar adulescens 
fecit, curavi. At id ad privatum officium, non ad 
statum rei p. pertinet; quod tamen munus et hominis 
amicissimi memoriae atque honoribus praestare etiam 
mortui debui et optimae spei adulescenti ac dignissimo 

TCaesare petenti negare non potui. Veni etiam con- 
suKs Antoni domum saepe salutandi causa; ad quem, 
qui me parum patriae amantem esse existimant, rogandi 
quidem aliquid aut auferendi causa frequentis ventitare 
reperies. Sed quae haec est adrogantia, quod Caesar 
numquam interpellavit, quin, quibus vellem, atque 
etiam quos ipse non diKgebat, tamen iis uterer, eos. 



CICERO^S LETTERS 75 

qui mihi amicum eripuerunt, carpendo me efficere conari, 
ne, quos veKm, diKgam ? 

Sed non vereor, ne aut meae vitae modestia parums 
valitura sit in posterum contra falsos rumores, aut ne 
etiam ii, qui me non amant propter meam in Caesarem 
constantiam, non malint mei quam sui similis amicos 
habere. Mihi quidem si optata contingent, quod reK- 
quum est vitae, in otio Rhodi degam ; sin casus aKquis 
interpellarit, ita ero Romae, ut recte fieri semper cupiam. 
Trebatio nostro magnas ago gratias, quod tuum erga 
me animum simpKcem atque amicum aperuit, et quod 
eum, quem semper lubenter dilexi, quo magis iure colere 
atque observare deberem, fecit. Bene vale et me diKge. 

LXXI. Ad Familiares i6. 21 
CICERO F. TIRONI SUO DULCISSIMO S. 

Cum vehementer tabellarios exspectarem cotidie, aK-i 
quando venerunt post diem quadragensimum et sextum, 
quam a vobis discesserant. Quorum mihi fuit adventus 
optatissimus ; nam cum maximam cepissem laetitiam 
ex humanissimi et carissimi patris epistula, tum vero 
iucundissimae tuae litterae cumulum mihi gaudi attu- 
lerunt. Itaque me iam non paenitebat intercape- 
dinem scribendi fecisse, sed potius laetabar; fructum 
enim magnum humanitatis tuae capiebam ex silentio 
mearum litterarum. Vehementer igitur gaudeo te meam 
sine dubitatione accepisse excusationem. 

Gratos tibi optatosque esse, qui de me rumores ad- 2 
fenmtur, non dubito, mi dulcissime Tiro, praestaboque 
et enitar, ut in dies magis magisque haec nascens de me 



76 CICERO'S LETTERS 

duplicetur opinio. Quare, quod polKceris, te bucina- 
torem fore existimationis meae, firmo id constantique 
animo facias licet; tantum enim mihi dolorem crucia- 
tumque attulerunt errata aetatis meae, ut non solum 
animus a factis, sed aures quoque a commemoratione 
abhorreant. Cuius te sollicitudinis et doloris participem 
fuisse notum exploratimique est mihi, nee id minim ; nam, 
cum omnia mea causa velles mihi successa, tum etiam tua ; 
socium enim te meorum commodorum semper esse volui. 

3 Quoniam igitur tum ex me doluisti, nunc ut duplicetur 
tuum ex me gaudium, praestabo. Cratippo me scito 
non ut discipulum, sed ut filium esse coniimctissimum ; 
nam cum audio ilium lubenter tum etiam propriam eius 
suavitatem vehementer amplector. Sum totos dies cum 
eo noctisque saepenumero partem ; exoro enim, ut mecum 
quam saepissime cenet. Hac introducta consuetudine 
saepe inscientibus nobis et cenantibus obrepit sublataque 
severitate philosophiae humanissime nobiscum iocatur. 
Quare da operam, ut hunc talem, tam iucundum, tam ex- 

4 cellentem virum videas quam primum. Nam quid ego de 
Bruttio dicam? quem nuUo tempore a me patior dis- 
cedere; cuius cum frugi severaque est vita tum etiam 
iucundissima convictio ; non est enim seiunctus iocus a 
(f)i\o\oyLa et cotidiana avi^'qTrjaei. Huic ego locum in pro- 
ximo conduxi et, ut possum, ex meis angustiis illius sus- 

stento tenuitatem. Praeterea declamitare Graece apud 
Cassium institui, Latine autem apud Bruttium exerceri 
volo. Utor familiaribus et cotidianis convictoribus, 
quos secum Mitylenis Cratippus adduxit, hominibus et 
doctis et illi probatissimis. Multum etiam mecum est 



CICERO^S LETTERS 77 

Epicrates, princeps Atheniensium, et Leonides et horum 
ceteri similes. TA fiev ovv Kaff fi^ia^ rdhe. De Gorgia 6 
autem quod mihi scribis, erat quidem ille in cotidiana 
declamatione utilis, sed omnia postposui, dum modo 
praeceptis patris parerem ; SiapprjSrfv enim scripserat, ut 
eum dimitterem statim. Tergiversari nolui, ne mea 
nimia <nrovBff suspicionem ei aKquam importaret ; deinde 
illud etiam mihi succurrebat, grave esse me de iudicio 
patris iudicare. Tuum tamen studium et consiKum? 
gratum acceptumque est mihi. 

Excusationem angustiarum tui temporis accipio; 
scio enim, quam soleas esse occupatus. Emisse te 
praedium vehementer gaudeo feKciterque tibi rem istam 
evenire cupio (hoc loco me tibi gratulari noli mirari; 
eodem enim fere loco tu quoque emisse te fecisti me 
certiorem). Habes; deponendae tibi sunt urbanitates; 
rusticus Romanus factus es, quo modo ego mihi nunc 
ante .oculos tuum iucundissimum conspectum propono ; 
videor enim videre ementem te rusticas res, cum vilico 
loquentem, in lacinia servantem ex mensa secunda 
semina. Sed, quod ad rem pertinet, me tum tibi defuisse 
aeque ac tu doleo. Sed noli dubitare, mi Tiro, quin te 
sublevaturus sim, si modo fortuna me, praesertim cum 
sciam communem nobis emptum esse istum fundum. 
De mandatis quod tibi curae fuit, est mihi gratum; sed 8 
peto a te, ut quam celerrime mihi librarius mittatur, 
maxime quidem Graecus; multum mihi enim cripitur 
operae in exscribendis hypomnematis. Tu veUm in 
primis cures, ut valeas, ut una o-vfKJyLXoXoyelv possimus, 
Anterum tibi commendo. 



78 CICERO'S LETTERS 

LXXII. Ad Familiat'es 9. 24 
CICERO PAETO S. D. 

1 Rufum istum, amicum tuum, de quo iterum iam 
ad me scribis, adiuvarem, quantum possem, etiamsi ab 
eo laesus essem, cum te tantopere viderem eius causa 
laborare ; cum vero et ex tuis Ktteris et ex ilKus ad me 
missis intellegam et iudicem magnae curae ei salutem 
meam fuisse, non possum ei non amicus esse, neque 
solum tua commendatione, quae apud me, ut debet, 
valet plurimum, sed etiam volimtate ac iudicio meo. 
Volo enim te scire, mi Paete, initium mihi suspicionis et 
cautionis et diligentiae fuisse litteras tuas, quibus litteris 
congruentes fuerunt aliae postea multorum. Nam et 
Aquini et Fabrateriae consilia sunt inita de me, quae te 
video inaudisse, et, quasi divinarent, quam iis molestus 
essem futurus, nihil aliud egerunt, nisi me ut opprime- 
rent. Quod ego non suspicans incautior fuissem, nisi a 
te admonitus essem. Quam ob rem iste tuus amicus 
apud me commendatione non eget. Utinam ea fortuna 
rei p. sit, ut ille animum meum gratissimum possit 
cognoscere! Sed haec hactenus. 

2 Te ad cenas itare desisse moleste f ero ; magna enim te 
delectatione et voluptate privasti ; deinde etiam vereor 
(licet enim verum dicere), ne nescio quid illud, quod 
solebas, dediscas et obliviscare, cenulas facere. Nam, 
si tum, cum habebas, quos imitarere, non multum pro- 
ficiebas, quid nunc te facturum putem? Spurinna 
quidem, cum ei rem demonstrassem et vitam tuam su- 
periorem exposuissem, magnum periculum summae rei 



CICERO'S LETTERS 79 

p. demonstrabat, nisi ad superiorem consuetudinem turn, 
cum Favonius flaret, revertisses; hoc tempore ferri 
posse, si forte tu frigus ferre non posses. Sed mehercule, 3 
mi Paete, extra iocum moneo te, quod pertinere ad 
beate vivendum arbitror, ut cum viris bonis, iucundis, 
amantibus tui vivas. Nihil est aptius vitae, nihil ad 
beate vivendum accommodatius. Nee id ad voluptatem 
refero, sed ad communitatem vitae atque victus remis- 
sionemque animorum, quae maxime sermone efficitur 
familiari, qui est in conviviis dulcissimus, utsapientius 
nostri quam Graeci ; illi a-vfiiroa-La aut avvhenrva^ id est 
compotationes aut concenationes, nos ^ con vi via,' quod 
tum maxime simul vivitur. Vides, ut te philosophando 
revocare coner ad cenas. Cura, ut valeas; id foris 
cenitando facillime consequere. 

Sed cave, si me amas, existimes me, quod iocosius* 
scribam, abiecisse curam rei p. Sic tibi, mi Paete, 
persuade, me dies et noctes nihil aliud agere, nihil curare, 
nisi ut mei cives salvi liberique sint. Nullum locum 
praetermitto monendi, agendi, providendi ; hoc denique 
animo sum, ut, si in hac cura atque administratione vita 
mihi ponenda sit, praeclare actum mecum putem. 
Etiam atque etiam vale. 



NOTES 

Roman numerals refer to the Letters as numbered in this edition; Arabic 
numerals, to sections of Letters. 
G. = Gildersleeve-Lodge Grammar. 

A. = Allen and Greenough's Grammar. 

B. = Bennett's Grammar. 

Tyrrell = R. Y. Tyrrell : Cicero in His Letters. 

Abbott = F. F. Abbott : Selected Letters of Cicero. 

Shuckburgh = E. S. Shuckburgh : The Letters of Cicero (translation). 

Winstedt = E. O. Winstedt: Letters to Atticus (with translation). 

' — ' = a translation. 

" — " = a quotation, or a paraphrase of the clause or sentence. 

All dates, unless otherwise specified, are B.C. 

I. Ad Atticum i. 7. Rome, February, 67. 

Attico: Titus Pomponius Atticus (109-32) was Cicero's dearest 
friend. The two men met in the year 79 in Athens, whither Atticus 
had fled to escape the confusion consequent upon the war between 
Marius and Sulla ; Cicero was studying there at the time. In later 
years, Atticus accumulated considerable wealth and was a dis- 
tinguished patron of literature. Among his many activities, not 
the least interesting was his excellent publishing establishment. 
He held himself aloof from politics, like the true Epicurean he was, 
and yet he numbered among his friends the leading men of all 
parties. A biography of him, by Cornelius Nepos (see note on 
NepotiSj LXIX. 5), is extant. — Cf. also note on lihrariolisy XXXII. i. 

Sal. : abbreviation for salutem; sc. dicit. — For the use of solus, 
* health,' in a greeting, cf. vale, * farewell,' and the full meaning of 
our familiar expression, " farewell." 

matrem : Atticus' mother is said to have attained the age of ninety. 
— In more careful writing, tuam would be inserted. Its omission 
here makes for ambiguity, since the meaning of apud matrem would 
naturally be, * at my mother's.' 

recte est, * all is well ' (cf. note on 5. T. E. Q. V. B, £., IV. i). 

eaque, * and she.' 

nobis curaest: G. 356; A. 382; B. 191. 2. — Cicero was fond of 
using the " editorial we" 

L. Cincio : a clerk or agent of Atticus. 

81 



82 CICERO'S LETTERS 

HS XXCD) * twenty thousand, four hundred sesterces.* HS = 
II + S(emis), or two and one- half asses (one sestertius). II is 
usually written H. The line over XX multiplies by looo; hence, 
since the sesterce was equal, in our money, to four cents and a frac- 
tion, the sum to be paid by Cicero was about eight hundred and 
twenty-five dollars. — HS XXCD is direct object of curaturum. 

curaturum : sc. esse (frequently omitted when the future infinitive 
occurs in indirect discourse; cf. note on me esse^ II. i). Render, 
* look out for,' or, as we might say, " make arrangements to get 
hold of." 

Idibus Febr. • G. pp. 491-492 ; A. pp. 428-429 ; B. pp. 247-248. — 
Debtors were expected to settle with their creditors on the Kalends 
and Ides of each month. 

Tu : in sharp contrast with nobis and we, above. 

velim: G. 257; A. 447; B. 280. 2. a. 

ea — parasse ^ : Atticus had bought some statues for Cicero. See 
II. 2. — Parasse = paravisse. Such contractions are common in 
the Letters, as in Latin in general. 

des: G. 546, remark 2; A. 565 and note i; B. 296. i. a. With 
velim . . . deSy cf. velim cogiteSj below. 

quam primum, * as soon as possible.* See G. 303 and remark; A. 
291. c; B. 240. 3. id quod, * as.* 

quern ad modum, * how,' followed by the subjunctive of indirect 
question, possis. See G. 467; A. 573-574; B. 300. 

conficere, ' get together.* 

omnem spem: in more elaborate style, Cicero would probably 
have written omnem enim spem. Such asyndeton (cf. note on 
iravToiris 6.peTTi^ jjufiv^ffKeo^ V. i) is of frequent occurrence in the 
Letters; we naturally talk in short, crisp sentences, and Cicero 
wrote, in his letters, much as he talked. 

delectationis : G. 363. 2; A. 348; B. 200. 

v^enerimus : cum with the indicative emphasizes the time of the 
action. Cf. G. 580; A. 545; B. 288-289. humanitate, * courtesy.* 

positam habemus : G. 238; A. 497. b; B. 337. 7. 

11. Ad Atticum i. 9. Rome, 67. 

1. abs te : see G. 417. i, note; B. 142. i. 
multo: G. 403; A. 414; B. 223. 

et . . . et: Cicero gives two reasons for the statement nimium 
adferuntur. 

1 ea — parasse means that these two and all intervening words are treated in 
the note. Ea . . . parasse would limit the note to these words. 



NOTES 83 

reperias: G. 586; A. 549; B. 286. 2. 

qui Romam proficiscantiir : sc. an antecedent for quij such as 
vialore^y amicosj or simply eos. So below, at qui Athenas. — Why 
not ad Romam? See G. 337; A. 427; B. 182. i. — For the mood of 
proficiscantur, see G. 631; A. 535; B. 283. 

et certius — Athenis: Cicero, in 67, was occupied with his law 
practice, and was, furthermore, in the midst of his cursus honorumy 
that is, his political career. He had served as curule aedile (cf . note 
on aedili curuliy XL VI, greeting) in 69, and was to enter upon the 
office of praetor urbanus (cf. note on praetorem^ XXIX. 6) in 66. It 
was, therefore, very difficult for him to leave Rome for an extended 
trip. Atticus, being a man of wealth and leisure, would naturally 
not remain in Athens all the time. 

me esse : G. 648-650; A. 579-580; B. 313-314. 

Romae . . . Athenis: G. 29. 2; A. 427. 3; B. 228. i. a and 232. 

quam — Athenis = quam mihi sit te esse Athenis. 

hanc . . . meam : pleonastic, since hie regularly signifies * this 
of mine.' Such pleonasm is common, however, in all styles. 

brevior, * rather short,* — the comparative absolute. See G. 297. 2 ; 
A. 291. a; B. 240. i. 

familiarem sermonem, * confidential chat.' 

2. Signa Megarica, * statues of Megaric marble.* — Megaris was a 
small state in Greece between the Saronic and Corinthian Gulfs. — 
Cicero was at this time fitting out his villa at Tusculum, a town ten 
miles southeast of Rome. In a former letter to Atticus (I. 5. 7), he 
says, " Kindly see to my orders, and, as you suggest, purchase what- 
ever you think suitable for liiy Tusculan house, if not too much 
trouble. For that is the only place where I can find rest from all 
my cares and toils." Men of means in Rome were fond of decorating 
their residences, both urban and rural, with statues and other works 
of art from Greece. Many Greek cities were thus absolutely stripped 
of their treasures. Though Cicero was undoubtedly a man of fine 
artistic sensibilities, the majority of prosperous Romans were not. 
Hence, in the first century we find a certain Pasiteles and his fol- 
lowers literally flooding the city with fourth-rate statues, which 
opulent senators and nnuvcaux-richcs freedmen purchased with more 
avidity than discrimination. 

Hennas, * statues of Hermes.' These, as we know from another 
letter, were of Pentelic marble — got from Mt. Pentelicus, northeast 
of Athens. — The word Herma means a bust of Hermes carved at 
the top of a square pillar. 

vehementer exspecto, ' I am awaiting with keenest interest.' 



84 CICERO'S LETTERS 

Quicquid, * whatever (else).* 

generis: G. 365; A. 345; B. 203. 

Academia : one of the buildings on Cicero's estate at Tusculum, 
named after Plato's *AKo5iJfteio (Akademeia), a few miles from Athens 
(cf. also note on palaestra, XXXV. 2). — For the case, see G. 397, 
note 2 ; A. 418. b ; B. 226. 2. 

ne dubitaris mittere, * do not hesitate to send.' — Dubitaris is 
for dubitaveris. Ne with the perfect subjunctive, second person, 
is used in negative con^mands by Cicero chiefly in his Letters. Else- 
where we usually find noli or nolite plus the infin. See G. 263. 2 and 
271. 2; A. 450; B. 276. 

Genus — meae, *this is what delights me at present.' — For the 
case of voluptatisy see G. 361. 2. 

YV|fcvcun^8T| {gufnnasidde)y * suitable for a gymnasium.' — The word 
gymnasium primarily means a place for gymnastic exercises; in a 
transferred sense, it denotes a public institution where mind and 
body alike could be trained. Cicero here refers to a building with a 
library attached, wherein he proposed to discuss philosophical or 
rhetorical subjects with those who cared to listen. 

Lentulus: P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther, curule aedile during 
Cicero's consulship (63), and a man of great wealth (cf. note on 
Lentulus, XXIV. 2). 

Thyillus : a Greek poet living at Rome. 

eius rogatu, * at his request.' — Cicero might have written ab eo 
rogatus. 

EifioXiTiSAv irdrpitt, * records of the Eumolpidae ' (a noble 
Athenian family from which were chosen the priests of Demeter at 
Eleusis). Atticus apparently had some manuscripts containing these 
records, or perhaps some books deal^lg with them. — There is a 
large Greek element in the Letters of Cicero which the thoughtful 
student, cannot fail to recognize and appreciate, as he reads. 

in. Ad Atticum i. 2. Rome, July, 65. 

1. L. Julio Caesare : only distantly related to the great Caesar. 

consulibus : see G. 409-410; A. 419; B. 227. — Lucius Caesar and 
Figulus were consuls in 64. The reference to Catiline's trial (see 
on Catilinam, below) shows that this letter must have been written 
in 65 ; so with consulibus we should supply dcsignatis, * elect.' The 
consuls were elected by the comitia centuriata (see note on omnium — 
ordinum, XXIX. 4) several months before Jan. i, when their term of 
ofl&ce, which lasted one year, began (after 153). Between the time of 
their election and the day on which they assumed their duties, they 



NOTES 85 

were called consules designati. The consulship was the highest i>osition 
in the senatorial cursus honorum, the lower magistracies being the 
quaestorship (see note on FavoniOy XXIX. 7), the curule aedileship 
(see note on aedili curulij XLVI, greeting), and the praetorship (see 
note on praetorem, XXIX. 6). Fragments of fasti consulareSy * con- 
sular lists/ have been found, which give the names and the dates of 
the consuls year by year. 

auctum : infinitive or participle ? Cf . note on me esse, II. i . 

scito : a colloquialism. For the form, see G. 267, remark ; A. 449. a. 
— The intimate tone of most of the Letters justifies the frequent 
occurrence of forms and usages not found in the sermo urbanus. 

Terentia : Cicero's wife. She was a woman of great strength 
of character and of good sense. He divorced her, however, in 46 and 
married Publilia, who was young and wealthy (see LVI. 3). — For 
the case, cf . note on consulibus, above. 

litterarum : always plural when signifying * epistle.' — For the 
case, see G. 369; A. 346. a. i ; B. 201. 

Ego : logically, * though I,* etc. 

rationibus, * circumstances.' 

Catilinam : the charge against him was misconduct during the 
proscriptions of Sulla (or, according to another opinion, extortion in 
Africa). It is fairly certain that Cicero did not actually defend 
Catiline, but at any rate he planned to do so. The outrageous 
collusion of attorney for the defense and prosecutor (summa accusa- 
toris voluntate) in the selection of favorable judges is an indication of 
Cicero's willingness to stoop to the lowest means of winning popular 
favor for his candidacy for the consulship. Two years later, as 
consul, he violently assailed Catiline for attempting to overthrow the 
state. 

smmna . . . voluntate, * with the fullest approval.' 

accusatoris : P. Clodius, who later (in 58) effected Cicero's banish- 
ment. 

si . . . sin: see G. 592; A. p. 138, a; B. 306. 3. 

absolutus erit : future more vivid condition. Cf. note on veneris, 
VIII. 2. 

fore: ior futurum esse. See G. 116. c; A. 170. a; B. p. 57, foot- 
note 3. 

ratione petitionis, * in the conduct of our canvass ' (Shuckburgh). 

humaniter, * as a man should.' — For the form, see G. 92. 2 ; 
A. 214. c; B. 77. 4. 

2. adventu: G. 406; A. 411; B. 218. 2. 

matiiro : very effectively placed, — * and soon, too.* 



86 CICERO'S LETTERS 

prorsus summa, * very strong.' 

tuos . . . fore : Cicero was a novus homo, — a man fortified for bitter 
political competition by no ancestral prestige, — and his notable 
achievements in the service of the state made him an object of the 
keen jealousy of many less successful men of distinguished ante- 
cedents. 

honori : see G. 359; A. 384; B. 192. — Render, * election to office.' 

fore : futuros esse. Cf. note on fore, i. 

conciliandam : gerundive with ad, expressing purpose. See 
G. 432; A. 506; B. 339. 2. 

mihi Usui : cf . note on nobis curaest, I. 

lanuario mense : cf. note on Idibus Febr.y I. The Roman year 
began on March i until 153, when the consuls entered upon their 
duties Jan. i. Before the introduction of the "Julian Calendar" 
(45), the year consisted of 355 days. Since such a year was more 
than ten days short, every two years an intercalary month of 22 days 
was inserted after the festival of the Terminaliaj Feb. 23. The 
intercalations were in charge of the pontificesj who, for several years 
prior to 46, had neglected this part of their duties. Caesar intro- 
duced, in 46, two months (67 days) between Nov. and Dec, and on 
Jan. I, 45, began his new system, which, with minor errors, corrected 
by Augustus in 4 a.d. and by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582, is in use 
now in all civilized countries save Russia and Greece. — Cicero was 
planning to begin his active canvass in January, and he was therefore 
particularly anxious that Atticus should be in Rome during that 
month. 

ut constituisti : «/, * as,' is followed by the indicative. 

Romae : cf. note on Romae . . . AtheniSy II. i. 

sis: see G. 546; A. 563; B. 295. 

IV. Ad Familiares 5. 7. Rome, April, 62. 

1. S. T. E. Q. V. B. E., si tu exercitusque valetisj bene estj a formal 
salutation. Cicero was suffering at this time from an acute attack 
of injured vanity. He had written Pompey (who was in the East, 
engaged in bringing to a close the Third Mithridatic War), giving 
him a full account of his achievements, as consul. Pompey, probably 
disgusted with the letter's braggadocio, had replied briefly and some- 
what bluntly, and at the same time had dispatched a letter to the 
senate containing no reference to Cicero. — With bene est, cf. recte 
est, I, with note (see also note on fuit enim periucunde, LXV. i). 

publice, * officially.' 

una : adverb, frequently used with cum and the ablative. 



NOTES 87 

te : see G. 401, note 6 ; A. 431. a ; B. 218. 3. — LucuUus, a wealthy 
noble, though he had waged war with considerable success against 
Mithridates for several years, was recalled, and the passage of the 
Manilian Law (66) gave Pompey command in the East. 

pollicebar : i.e., in the oration. Pro Lege Manilla. 

veteres hostis : the popular party, led by Caesar. 

novos amicos : " now pretending to be your supporters." 

vehementer — iacere : Pompey had apparently attempted, in 
his communication to the senate, to insure his friendly footing with 
that body. He had also catered to the populares, that is, the demo- 
crats (many of whom were supporters of Catiline and were therefore 
opposed to Cicero's pimitive measures against the conspirators) by 
omitting any commendation of the consul. 

ex magna spe : that is, their hope that Pompey would justify their 
support of him by definitely joining their party. 

iacere, * are prostrated.* * 

2. eziguam, * but slight.' 
mihi : cf. note on honori, III. 2. 

iucundas: Cicero was far too wise to make a breach between 
Pompey and himself, even though his pride had received a shock. 

fuisse: for the tense of the infinitive, see G. 529-531; A. 584; 
B. 27P. 

re: see A. 431. a. 

mecHTum ofBlciorum, * services to my friends.' This is a very com- 
mon meaning of officiuMy — * service rendered freely.' 

quibus ^- respondetur, * and if at any time I fail to receive due 
return for them.' 

plus offid, * the balance of service rendered.' 

studia: Cicero had shown on several occasions his interest and 
confidence in Pompey ; notably by his support of the Manilian Law. 

conciliatura coniuncturaque sit: first periphrastics. See G. 247; 
A. 194. a; B. 115 and 269. 3. — For the mood of sU, see G. 555; 
A. 558. a; B. 298. 

3. in tills lltteris : the communication to the senate. 
deslderarim : a contracted form. — Quid shows that we have an 

indirect question (see note on quem ad modtim, I). Cicero might 
have written quod desideravi. 

postulat: for the number, see G. 285. 3; A. 317. c. 

necessitu(linis, ' intimacy.' — The case depends upon causa. 
See G. 373; A. 359. b; B. 198. i. 

vererere : dependent clause in indirect discourse. See G. 650; A. 
580; B. 314. I. — Quod causal is coupled with the subjunctive only 



88 CICERO'S LETTERS 

when the author means to show that he is quoting some one's reason. 
The subjunctive is thus in virtual indirect discourse. See G. 541 ; 
A. 540; B. 286. I. 

ne — offenderes : cf . note on vehementer — iacerCy i . Cicero sug- 
gests that perhaps Pompey omitted all mention of his notable con- 
sulship for fear of offending the popular party. It is quite true 
that, in spite of his aristocratic leanings, Pompey realized the neces- 
sity of keeping the democratic wing well disposed toward himself. 

orbis terrae, * the wide, wide world.' — Orbis terrarum^ the more 
logical expression, occurs with much greater frequency. 

veneris : future perfect indicative. Cf. note on venerimuSy I. 

ut — patiare : translate in the following order : ut facile patiare 
mCy non multo minorem quant Laeliuntj esse adiunclum et in re p. 
et in amicitia tibi, multo maiori quam Africanus fuit. . 

tibi depends upon adiunclum. See G. 347; A. 370; B. 187. III. 

multo: cf. note on multo ^ II. i. 

Africanus : Scipio Africanus the Younger, who destroyed Carthage 
at the close of the Third Punic War (146). In the fourth Catilinarian 
Oration, Cicero declares that Pompey was a greater man than the 
great Scipio, Hannibal's conqueror; while, in Ad Fam. 3. 7. 5, he 
avers that he " places Pompey above any other man that ever 
lived." 

Laelium : attracted into the accusative by me. Strictly, we ought 
to have quam Laelius (fuit). — C. Laelius Sapiens was a learned 
man of the second century, whose close friendship with the younger 
Africanus has been immortalized by Cicero in his treatise Laelius 
De Amicitia. 

patiare: see G. 5S1-552; A. 537; B. 284. 

V. Ad Atticum 1.15. Rome, March 15, 61. 

1. Asiam : the Roman province of Asia Minor. 

Quinto : Cicero's younger brother. The post to which he had 
been appointed, and which he held about three years, was that of 
propraetor, a position roughly corresponding, in our country, to a 
Federal judgeship. 

audisti : contracted form. 

rumor: sc. nuntiarit. 

^iXAXi)vc$, ' philhellenic,' or, * devoted to things Circck.' 

habemur, *■ are considered.' 

multorum odia : i.e., hatred aroused by the summary punishment 
meted out to the fellow-conspirators of Catiline. — For the case of 
multorum, see G. 362; A. 343; B. 198. 



NOTES 89 

iravToCT|s 6.peri\is |jii|jiWj<rKco, * recall all your courage * {Iliad 22. 268). 
These words form part of Achilles' harangue to Hector on the eve of 
their combat outside the walls of Troy. — The asyndeton (or omission 
of connectives) is quite striking. We should expect nunc igitur be- 
fore TravToLris dperifs fAifAtr^aKeo, 

curaque, efBlce : imperatives. Again the asyndeton is worthy of 
note. 

omnibus : see G. 401 ; A. 405 ; B. 216. 

2. His — dabo : Atticus was in Epirus at this time, and would 
likely meet Quintus, on his way to his province, at Dyrrachium, the 
port at which passengers from Brundisium (cf. note on Brundisium, 
XV) usually landed. 

velim . . . facias, * please inform me.* Cf. notes on velim and des, I. 

ut — profectus es, 'since you left Brundisium.' — Ut is not com- 
monly used thus. We should regularly expect either postea quam 
Brundisio profectus es, or, post tuam Brundisio profectionem. 

Idibus Martiis : " In March, July, October, May, 

The Ides are on the fifteenth day. 
The Nones the seventh ; but all besides 
Have two days less for Nones and Ides." 

VI. Ad Atticum 2. 8. Cicero's villa at Antium, 

April, 59. 

1. ecce tibi, 'look you.' — For the case of tibi, see 0. 351 ; A. 380; 
B. 188. 2. b. 

pueros venisse : accusative and infinitive. The verb of saying is 
in nuntius (fuit) = nuntiatum est. — Pueros = servos. 

Roma : Atticus had returned from Greece. 

litterarum : cf . note on litterarum, III. i . 

voce. . .vultu: see G. 397; A. 418; B. 226. 

Quid quaeris : " you ask how that announcement affected me? " 

inanis, literally, * lacking in.' Render, * which failed to contain.' 

re: cf. G. 390. 3; A. 402. a; B. 214. i. d. 

quid: indefinite pronoun. See G. 107. i and remark; A. 310. a; 
B. 91. 

ante diem XVI Kal. Maias: April 15. According to the Julian 
calendar (see note on lanuario mcnsc, III. 2), this date would be 
April 16. Cf. also note on Idibus Febr., I. 

historia dignum, * worthy of note.' — For the case of historia, 
cf. note on Academia, II. 2. 

quam primum : cf . note on quam primuniy I. 



90 aCERO'S LETTERS 

sin : cf. note on si . . . sin, III. i. 

redde id ipsum, ' send me even that.* 

Curionem: a profligate and spendthrift, bought over from the 
Pompeians by Caesar, after having been elected tribune of the 
plebs in 50. Later he used his influence against his former friends. 
He was killed in Africa in the year 49 by King Juba and the Pompeian 
forces. 

adulescentem : added to distinguish Curio from his father, who was 
also a friend of Cicero. 

salutatum: supine. See G. 435; A. 509; B. 340. i. 

Public: cf. note on accusatoris. III. i. 

mirandum in modum, ' in a truly remarkable fashion.' 

reges odisse superbos : a line from the satirist, Lucilius (circiter 
168-103), who was the first to give to satire its sting. Previous to 
his time, saturae meant poems of varied character and meter ; earlier 
still, the term denoted rude, impromptu banter on festive occasions 
(see Livy 7. 2). — The infinitive, odisse, depends on some verb of 
saying, which, however, is lost, along with the great bulk of Lucilius' 
poetry. Render, * he hates.' — On reges . . . superbos, see note on 
haec, below. 

haec : i.e., the doings of the Triumvirate. Caesar, Pompey, 
and M. Licinius Crassus Dives, who composed that body, are 
referred to in reges . . . superbos, above. The " First Triumvirate " 
held sway from 60 to 53. 

Bene habemus, ' things are all right for us.' 

opinor, * I suggest.' — For its position, see A. 599. c. 

aliud agamus, ^ let us turn our attention to other matters.' 

historiae : what this was is unknown. — For the case, see G. 345 ; 
A. 362; B. 187. I. 

Saufeium: one of Atticus' friends. According to Tyrrell, this 
clause means, " at the risk of your thinking me as Epicurean and self- 
indulgent as Saufeius, I say," etc. 

2. statuas : see G. 543; A. 531 ; B. 282. 

visurus sis : cf. note on conciliatura coniuncturaque sit, IV. 2. 

In Formianum, * to my Formian villa.' Formiae was an ancient 
town about seventy-five miles south of Rome, on the seacoast. It 
was reached by the Appian Way. 

Parilibus, * the feast of Pales ' (an Italian divinity, both masculine 
and feminine, who presided over pasture lands). The festival was 
held on April 21 , and seems to have been observed both in the coimtry 
districts and in the city; April 21 was generally regarded as the date 
of the founding of Rome. — Farilia is an euphonic collateral form of 



NOTES 91 

Palilia, the true form. Lindsay ( The Latin Language^ p. 93) quotes 
other examples of this interchange of / and r, and notes that Pliny 
laid down a rule to the effect that the suffix -lis should be used when 
the stem contained an r ; -m, when it contained an /. 

nobis: see G. 215; A. 374; B. 189. 

Cratera : the bay of Naples. Cicero had two villas near, — at 
Puteoli and Cumae. In the immediate vicinity, also, was Baiae, the 
famous resort of fashion and frivolity. — The name Crater was given 
to the bay because of its resemblance, in shape, to the mouth of a 
large bowl {crater). — On the form, see G. 65, remark 3, and 66, 
note 3; A. 81 ; B. 47. i. 

Anti : locative. — Antium, about thirty miles south of Rome and 
on a rocky promontory jutting out into the sea, was a favorite 
suburban resort for the nobles and later for the emperors of Rome. 

ludi: public games, usually consisting, in the main, of chariot 
racing. See also note on muneribusy XXXII. 2. 

TtiUia : Cicero's daughter. 

cogito : sc. an infinitive. 

Tusculanum, ' my Tusculan villa.' Cf. Letters I and II. 
' Arpinum : a Latin town, about sixty-five miles southeast of Rome; 
Cicero's birthplace. See also note on tantum — veneraMj XXXV. i . 

adpinge — novi, * add something new.' 

VII. Ad Atticum 2. 10 Forum Appi, April, 59. 

Vole ames, *be good enough to admire.' Cf. velim and deSy I, 
and notes. 

constantiam, * resoluteness,' or, * firmness.* 

Anti : cf. note on Antiy VI. 2. 

^iiro(r6XoiKov, * inconsistent.' Cicero had evidently given the games 
considerable thought since writing Letter VI. 

deliciarum, * self-indulgence.' 

&va^aCveo^<u, *to appear.' — The infinitive is the subject of est. 
See G. 422; A. 452. i ; B. 327. i. Sc. me, as subject of the infinitive. 

delicate . . . inepte, * in self-indulgence ' . . . * in silly fashion.' 

peregrinantem : accusative with the understood subject of 
dvaif>alv€(r0ai. See G. 420; A. 452. 3, note 2 ; B. 327. 2. 

sciam . . . visuri simus : observe the change of number, — a 
common phenomenon when an author is talking of himself {i.e., in 
the first person). — For the mood of visuri sirmiSy cf. note on qiiem 
ad moduMy I. 

quo die : see G. 393; A. 423. i ; B. 230. 

Ab Appi Foro : on the use of ab with names of towns, see G. 391, 



92 CICERO'S LETTERS 

remark i; A. 428. a; B. 229. 2. — Forum Appi was a town in 
Latium, on the Appian Way, forty-three miles southeast of Rome. 

hora quarta : about ten o*clock in the morning. — Sc. hanc epis- 
tulam dedi. 

Dederam : epistolary tense. See G. 252; A. 479; B. 265. 

paulo : cf. note on multo, II. i. 

Tribus Tabemis: a little town situated where the road from 
Antium joined the Appian Way just above the Pomptine Marshes. 
Cicero was now on his way to Formiae. 

Vin. Ad Atticum 2. 11. Formiae, April, 59. 

1. Narro tibi : rather colloquial, — * I declare to you.' — Note the 
paratactic arrangement of the first two clauses of this sentence (see 
G. 472 ; A. 268, fourth paragraph). Indeed, the colloquial character 
of the sentence lies in the parataxis. 

posteaquam . . . sum, ' since my arrival.' 

Formiano: his villa at Formiae. See note on in Formianum, 
VI. 2. 

quo die: note the repetition of the antecedent. This is found 
quite frequently, especially in Caesar. 

sdrem: cf. note on qui Romam proficiscantuty II. i. 

fieret : used, for variety, instead of a repeated ageretur. Careless 
repetition of words is rarely found in Cicero, who, on the other hand, 
employs judicious iteration with great success, particularly in his 
orations. 

futurum esset, * was going to happen.* Cf. note on conciliatura 
coniuncturaque sity IV. 2. 

nisi si quid : as purposely elaborate as the English " except in 
case something." — On nisi siy cf. G. 591, remark 2 ; A. 525. a. 3; 
B. 306. 5. 

isti: used contemptuously. See G. 306, note; A. 297. c; B. 
246. 4. 

ponderosam, ' fat.' 

actorum : neuter, — 'events.' 

quo : sc. diCy ablative of time when. 

)2. prid. Nonas Maias : treated as a whole, and object of usque ad. 

eo : adverb, * thither.' 

veneris : future perfect indicative, in the protasis of a future more 
vivid condition. See G. 595; A. 516. c; B. 264 and 302. 

Arpinum : accusative, end of motion. See note on qui Romam 
proficiscantury II. i. — Note the emphatic position. — The quotation 
which follows implies that the associations of his boyhood attracted 



NOTES 93 

Cicero thither, rather than the town's beauty or healthfulness (see 
note on Arpinum, VI. 2). 

quid . . . invitem: deliberative subjunctive. See G. 265, 466, 
651, remark 2 ; A. 443, 444; B. 277. 

*Tpt|xit' — tS^Ottt' : Odyssey 9. 27-28 : 

* My rugged native land, good nurse for men ; 
None other would mine eyes so gladly see ' (Winstedt). 

These words were spoken by Ulysses to Alcinous, King of the Phaea- 
cians, who had asked the hero his name and home. 

Haec igitur : this laconic remark corresponds to the English " so 
much for this." 

IX. Ad Atticum 2. 18. Rome, June or July, 59. 

1. epistulas tuas : Atticus had left Rome and was on his way to 
Epirus. 

quam — soliidto, freely, * with what anxiety and trouble of mind.* 

averes : cf . note on quern ad modunij I. 

quid — novi : object of scire. Quid esset novi may be rendered, 
* the news.* 

novi : cf . note on litterarum, III. i . 

Tenemur, ' are held fast,' ' are bound,' — by the Triumvirate, 
whose policy of strict repression Cicero now proceeds to describe. 

neque — recusamus, * nor do we any longer object to slavery.' — 
For the mood of serviamusy see G. 549; A. 558. b; B. 295. 3. 

quae, " wheij, in reality, they are." 

neque . . . sublevatur, * and yet it is not alleviated.' 

cuiusquam: for its declension, see G. 107.3 and note 2; A. 151. d; 
B. 91. 7. For its syntax, see G. 317; A. 311-312; B. 252. 4. 

Skov^s, * the object.' 

qui tenent : sc. nos; render, * our oppressors.' 

cuiquam, * any one (else).' 

largitionem, * opportunity for generosity.' While stifling all 
initiative among the people, the triumvirs sought to keep them well- 
disposed by judicious patronage. 

palam: probably to be taken with loquitur as well as with ad- 
versatur. 

adulescens Curio: see note on Curlonem, VI. i. Curio had been 
for two or three years a sort of leader of the Catilinarian remnants 
(see Ad AU. i. 14. 5), and he would quite naturally, therefore, object 
strenuously to the Triumvirs' policy of repression. 



94 CICERO'S LETTERS 

bonis, * the loyalists ' (or * conservatives '), who of course opposed 
the radical regime of the Triumvirs. 

Fufium : an unpopular and worthless tribune. 

consectantur : an example of the comparatively uncommon 
indefinite 3d person plural (English " they," " people "). 

dolor, freely, * anger,' * resentment.' 

cum — alligatam, * since you see men's hearts free, but their 
manhood fettered.' 

2. ne — rebus, * to prevent your going into the matter in detail ' 
(xard Xewrbp). 

non modo . . . varum etiam, * I will not say, merely . . . but 
I*U add, also.' 

privatos . . . fore : accusative and infinitive, following spes . . . 
sU. See G. 527, remark 2 ; A. 579, footnote. — For forCj cf. note on 
forey III. I. 

drculis, * social gatherings.' 

dumtaxat, ' at least.' 

dolor : as above. The meaning of the sentence is, that, although 
anger is beginning to stifle fear, yet the situation appears hopeless. 

Habet — luliis, * furthermore, the Campanian bill compels candi- 
dates to invoke upon themselves a curse, if they make, in public 
meetings, proposals which look toward the possession of land in 
any other way than that laid down in the Julian laws.' — Habei 
eliam is really equivalent to * there's a further ground for despair,' 
etc. 

Campana lex : Caesar's agrarian law, providing for the distribu- 
tion among Pompey's veterans of certain parts of Campania. 
Other such laws were the bill of Spurius Cassius (486), the Licinian- 
Sextian bill (387), and the laws of Tiberius Gracchus (133). 

quo : sCf as antecedent, modi ullius. 

atque, * than.' See G. 643 ; A. 324. c; B. 341. i. c. — The following 
ui is probably to be construed with an understood possidetur, * than 
as it is possessed.' 

Laterensis : M. luventius Laterensis, one of Cicero's friends. 

3. Me tueor, * I stand my ground ' (Winstedt). 

ut — omnibus, * considering the wholesale repression.' — On the 
use of ut, see the Lewis and Short Lexicon, p. 1940, under 4. b. 

tantis rebus gestis : sc. mcis. — Another reference to 63, the 
great year. 

illam, " that I've told you about before." 

sibi — legatus: Caesar was about to set out into Gaul. 

libera legatio: a sort of mock embassy, granting the right of 



NOTES 95 

traveling through Italy and the provinces without any particular 
purpose or commission, and also allowing the legatus to collect his 
expenses from the towns visited en route. Caesar realized Cicero's 
danger from Clodius, and sought to save him by these offers. 

voti causa : the libera legalio was usually assigned voti causa, that 
is, * for the sake of the payment of a vow.' This was, of course, a 
mere pretext in practically every case. 

haec, * the latter,' — the libera legatio. 

praesidi depends upon satis. Cf. note on litterarum. III. i. 

apud pudorem, * in view of the sense of propriety ' (ironical, of 
course). 

Pulchelli, * Prettyman,' a derisive nickname for Clodius, whose 
full name was P. Clodius Pulcher. For the grounds of his hostility 
to Cicero, see note on percussisti — prolata, XVIII. 2. 

fratris adventu : the return of Quintus Cicero from his propraetor- 
ship in Asia Minor (see note on Asianty V. i). 

ilia, * the former,' i.e., the legatio with Caesar (see note on sibi — 
legatus, above). 

adsim: sc. Romae. 

banc : the libera legatio. 

magna — studia : sc. in me. Render, * people are warmly de- 
voted to me.' 

silebis: see G. 243; A. 449. b; B. 261. 2. This is in no sense a 
" polite command " ; it is a very energetic one, — * you shall keep 
silent.' 

4. Statio : Statins was one of Quintus Cicero's slaves (cf . note on 
Statium manu missum, X. i). 

misso : see G. 437, note 2 ; A. 497 ; B. 337. 6. 

occallui : i.e., by long worry over the plight of the republic. 

cuperem : a stronger word than vellem. — On the construction 
vellem . . . vel cuperem adesses, see G. 258; A. 447. i, note; B. 296. 
I . a. Both vellem and cuperem may easily be thought of as equivalent 
to a strong utinam (cf. notes on vellem, X. 2, and utinam adesses, 

X. s). 

mihi: see G. 349, remark 4; A. 373. b; B. 187. III. i. 

deesset : the apodosis of a contrary to fact condition, present 
time. The protasis is implied in cuperem adesses. See G. 597; 
A. 517; B. 304. I. 

X. Ad Atticum 2. 19. Rome, July, 59. 

1. Miilta me sollicitant: Cicero was becoming more and more 
alarmed at the condition of things in the state. Caesar, elected 



96 CICERO'S LETTERS 

consul for 59, was displaying unmistakable signs of ambition, while 
Pompey was vacillating and uncertain. 

ipsi, freely, * personally,' * in particular.' 

sescenta, literally, * six hundred ' ; used here, as often, of an 
indefinitely large number. 

Statium manu missum: there was a persistent rumor at Rome 
that this slave, Statius, had exercised undue influence over Quintus 
Cicero during his tenure of the propraetorship in Asia Minor. His 
brother, in Ad Quintum Fratrem i. 2. 3, written three months after 
this letter, mentioned the rumor with evident annoyance. — On the 
syntax of missum^ cf . note on misso, IX. 4. 

* Nee — saltern': Terence, Phormio 232-233, * And he had no 
fear of my absolute authority — and yet I leave authority out of the 
discussion — he had no fear of my anger, even ! ' — These words 
were spoken by the irate Demipho, on learning that during his 
absence from home Antipho, his son, had acquired a wife. — Publius 
Terentius Afer (195?-! 59) was the most polished and elegant writer 
of comedies in the whole history of Roman literature. Six plays 
have come down to us from his hand, of which the Phormio is gener- 
ally considered the best, at least in comic force. 

Revereri : exclamatory infinitive. See G. 534; A. 462; B. 334. 
Cf. also Aeneid i. 37-38: Mene incepto desistere victam, 
nee posse Italia Teucrorum avertere regent? 

ne . . . posstim quidem, * I am wholly without capacity.' 

iis: see G. 346 and remark 2; A. 367 and footnote; B. 187. II. 

quos . . . amo : i.e., Quintus. 

cetera — rebus, * the rest of my troubles are really important.' 

Minae Clodi — tangunt : Cicero had apparently failed to realize 
as yet how formidable a foe Clodius was destined to prove when he 
reached the tribunate. 

vel . . . vel: see G. 494; A. 324. e; B. 342. i. b. 

mihi: see A. 375. b; B. 188. 2. c. 

dignitate: G. 399; A. 412; B. 220. 

* Dignitatis &Xis tamquam 8pv6s,' * hang dignity. It's prehistoric ' 
(Winstedt). The exact sense is, " you've had enough of dignity 
as (one might say * you've had enough) of the oak.' " The proverbial 
saying, fiXts dpv6s {' enough of the oak '), means that eating acorns 
had long ceased to be necessary. In like manner Atticus would 
probably say to Cicero, " Forget your dignity : you've thought 
enough of that : take counsel for your safety." 

saluti : cf. G. 346, note 2 ; A. 367. c. 

me miserum: see G. 343. i; A. 397. d; B. 183. 



NOTES 97 

praeteriret : cf. note on deesset, IX. 4. Out of cur non ades, 
which might be replaced by vellem or utinatn adesseSy we get the 
needed protasis. 

Tv^X^TTo), ' I am blind.' 

nimium t^ koX^ irpocnr^irovOa, * I am all too devoted to the thing 
that is high and noble (and so perhaps I am blind to villainy).' 

2. peraeque : to be taken with ojfensum. 

generibus : cf. note on honoris III. 2. 

qui nunc est : pleonastic after hunc. 

magis — putarem, * it is not only more offensive, by Hercules, 
than I expected it to be, but more so than I desired.' 

vellem : cf . note on cuperem, IX. 4. — Another possible explana- 
tion of the mood of vellem is that the phrase, quam vellenty is ultimately 
equivalent to uHnam ne sic res se haberet. 

Populares : the democrats. 

Bibulus : M. Calpurnius Bibulus, Caesar's colleague in the consul- 
ship. As a stanch supporter of the aristocratic party, Bibulus did 
his best to oppose Caesar's agrarian bill (see note on Campana lex, 
IX, 2) and by delay to thwart his ultra-progressive policies, generally. 
He failed utterly, and finally, in disgust, refused to attend the 
assemblies. The line quoted below from Ennius is, therefore, quite 
apropos. 

in caelo est, * is extolled to the very skies.' 

* Unus — rem ' : a famous line from the Annates of Ennius, refer- 
ring to Quintus Fabius Maximus, who, in the Second Punic War, 
earned by his dilatory tactics against Hannibal the title Cunciator. — 
Quintus Ennius (239-169) is justly regarded as the father of Latin 
poetry. He produced literary works of great variety of form, but 
most of them have been lost. His most important poem was the 
AnnaleSy an epic in eighteen books of dactylic hexameters, on the 
founding and subsequent history of Rome. 

nostri amores : a colloquialism, * my beloved.' 

se adflizit: because of his alliance with Caesar, who, to Cicero, 
represented all that was hostile to the stability and perpetuity of the 
republic. 

tenent : sc. triumviri. 

voluntate, * by ties of affection.' 

metu: see 0. 407; A. 410; B. 218. i. 

necesse sit: see G. 550; A. 564; B. 296. 2. Necesse est may be 
followed by the dative and infinitive, as here, or by the subjunctive 
of result. 

Ego — amidtiam, *I, however, am not engaged in open warfare 



98 CICERO'S LETTERS 

upon the Triumvirate, because of that friendship of mine (for 
Pompey).* 

utor via, * I keep to the middle of the road.' 

3. theatre : the first stone theater at Rome was built by Pompey 
in 55. Previous to that time plays had been presented upon tem- 
porary stages (cf. note on ludos^ XXXVI. i). 

spectactdis : a general word for all sorts of games in the circus. — 
TheatrOy spectaculisy and gladiatoribus (— gladiatoriis tudis) are ex- 
amples of the free use of the ablative of time within which (see 
note on hrevi tempore^ XII. 2). 

qua . . . qua, literally, * where ' . . . ' where * = * where ' . . . * there,* 
i.e., *in both places,' and so equal to et . . . et. This is a colloquial- 
ism not found in Cicero's more polished works, and is one of the many 
instances of such colloquialism which go to prove Professor Tyrrell's 
contention that the diction of the Letters shows a close parallelism 
to that of the comic drama. 

dominus, * owner,' 'jnaster,' i.e.y Pompey. The word frequently 
means * an owner of slaves,' and it is to be borne in mind that many 
gladiators were slaves. 

ludis Apollinaribus : games in honor of Apollo, held, under the 
praetors' auspices, annually, on July 6-13. The other chief exhi- 
bitions were the Megalensia (April 4-10, celebrated by the curule 
aediles), Ludi Romani (Sept. 5-19, conducted by the consuls), 
Ludi Plebeii (Nov. 4-18, under the control of the plebeian aediles). 

tragoedus, 'tragic actor.' The most famous tragedian of the 
period was Aesopus (cf. note on AesopuSj XXXVI. 2), who, with the 
great comedian, Roscius (cf. the Oration for Archias 8), lived on 
intimate terms with Cicero. 

invectus est : the English derivative is * inveigh.' Translated lit- 
erally, it is practically equivalent to our slang expression, * sailed into.' 

miliens : cf. note on sescenta, i. 

virtutem : object of gemes. 

totius theatri clamore, * amid general applause,' involves an abla- 
tive of attendant circumstance. Besides the simple ablative thus 
used, we often have a cum phrase to express attendant circumstance 
(ablative of manner). An example is magno cum fremitus below. 

modi : cf. note on generis ^ II. 2. 

in tempus, * for the occasion.' 

mortuo plausu, * as the applause died away ' (Shuckburgh) . 

Curio filius, * Curio the Younger.' Filius replaces ddulescens, 
used above. — It will be remembered that at this time Curio was 
bitter toward Caesar (cf. note on adulescens Curio, IX. i). 



NOTES 99 

Huic: dative with plausum est (A. 368. 3). Observe that v^rbs 
which govern the dative in the active are used impersonally in the 
passive and retain the dative (cf. note on matrimonio et famae, 
XVII. 3). 

salva re publica : t.c, before the monarchical rule of the triumvirs 
threatened its integrity. 

Capuam : about a hundred and ten miles southeast of Rome, in 
Campania. Pompey was there at this time, engaged in carrying out 
the provisions of Caesar's agrarian bill, 

Inimici erant: the subject is diplomatically an indefinite *they,* 
whom the reader of course identifies with the triumvirs. 

Rosciae legi: passed in 67. It provided that fourteen rows of 
seats in the theater immediately behind the orchestra (where the 
senators sat) should be reserved for the equUes. The abrogation of 
this law by the triumvirs would, of course, be a severe blow to the 
knights. 

frumentariae : sc. legi. This probably refers to the lex Cassia 
Terentiay passed in 73, which provided for the sale of grain at low 
rates. The poorer classes were quite naturally aroused when they 
learned that this law was in danger of repeal at the hands of the 
Triumvirate. 

quod — illis: i.e.y the measures of the triumvirs. 

ne non liceat : cf. note on necesse sity 2. — Ne non — ut. 

esse . . . ferendum: second periphrastic. See G. 215; A. 194. b; 
B. 115, and 337. 8. b. 

praesidio, * by real power.' — For the case, see G. 401 ; A. 409; 
B. 218. 

4. Noster : note the emphatic position : " / have my own per- 
sonal troubles, for Publius," etc. 

Publius: Clodius. 

Lnpendet negotium, * trouble is hanging over me.' 

Videor — firmissimum, *I believe that I am still firmly supported 
by the same phalanx of all loyal or even tolerably loyal men which 
supported me when consul * (Shuckburgh). 

ilium: Clodius. 

Cosconio : one of Caesar's land commissioners. 

in locum mortui : Cicero means not only that he is invited to take 
the position of one who had died, but also that, politically speaking, 
the post would be for him " a dead man's place." As an opponent 
of Caesar's agrarian bill, he could not well be a commissioner to 
execute it. Cf. also note on illi, below. 

me : ablative of comparison (see note on re publica . . . iis, XII. 2). 



lOO CICERO^S LETTERS 

fuisset: apodosis of contrary to fact condition, past time. Sc. 
si locum accepissem. 

istam ipsam &<r^d\ciav, * that safety you write of.' 

illi : Caesar's land commissioners. They were unpopular with 
the conservatives, for the reason that the latter bitterly opposed 
agrarian laws. 

ego — invidiam: another reference to the Catilinarian conspiracy. 
Cf. In CatUinam 3. 12. 

alienam adsumpsissem, ' I should have shouldered another man's 
unpopularity.' — Observe the asyndeton (cf . note on vavrolris dpcTTjs 
fufivi/l<rKC0j V. i) in this sentence. 

6. Caesar — legatum: cf. note on sibi — legatus, IX. 3. 

periculi : i.e., from Clodius. 

* utinam adesses ' : G. 261 ; A. 442 ; B. 279. This is a simpler and 
far commoner form of expression than cuperem or vellem adesses 
(cf. note on cuperem ^ IX. 4). 

erit . . . arcessemus: G. 595; A. 516. a; B. 302. i. 

quid — diu? * for why do we so long feign ignorance ? ' 

timide : cf . pugnare malo, above. Cicero exhibits here strangely 
contradictory phases of character. Many such are to be observed 
in this truly astonishing man. 

perfidelem : sc. nuniium. — Cicero is fond of using adjectives in 
per — , especially in the Letters (cf. note on subinvideo tibi, XLIII. 

I). 

dem : cf . note on qui Romam proficiscantury II. i . 

Laelium : cf. note on Laelium^ IV. 3. 

Furium: Furius, consul in 136, was one of Laelius' intimates. 

Iv alvi^^is, * in riddles ' ; that is, Cicero will write very guardedly 
to Atticus, through fear of prying messengers (cf. note on /xu<rTi- 
Kibrepovy XL VII. 3). 

Caecilium: Atticus' wealthy uncle. Nepos, the first century 
historian (cf. note on Nepotisy LXIX. 5), informs us that Caecilius 
was a very crabbed man, with whom no one but his nephew could 
remain long on friendly terms, and who bequeathed to that nephew 
his fortune. See also note on the salutation, XXII. 

Bibuli : cf. note on Bibulus, 2. His edicta — fulminations against 
Caesar — were issued after he withdrew in disgust from active par- 
ticipation in public affairs. 

lis : cf. note on praesidio, 3. 

dolore : see G. 408; A. 404 and a; B. 219. 



NOTES loi 

XI. Ad Atticum 2. 23. Rome, before October 18, 59. 

1. nisi — scriptam : the wealthy Roman had a secretary (usually 
a slave or freedman) to write his letters, as a rule, but Cicero, until 
late in life, wrote practically all his letters to Atticus with his own 
hand (cf. introduction, section 3). 

quanta — distinear, ' how I am distracted with business * (Shuck- 
burgh). 

voculae, * my feeble voice ' (diminutive) : to be joined with 
recreandae (gerundive). On the construction, see G. 428, remark 2 ; 
A. 504. b; B. 339. 5. 

2. Sampsiceramum : Sampsiceramus was ruler of a province in 
Syria which Pompey conquered. Cicero dubs Pompey Sampsicera- 
mus because of his arrogant Eastern manner. Winstedt translates 
by * The Pasha.' 

sui status: i.e., his unpopularity. Cf. the preceding Letter; but 
bear in mind that Cicero invariably underrates the power of the 
Triumvirate. 

decidit, * has fallen,' — since his return from the East. 

auctores . . . consenescere : dependent upon scircj above. Render 
consenescere by * are weakening.' 

nullo adversario : translate with concessive force. 

voluntatis . . . sermonis, ' secret feeling ' . . . ' open talk.' 

3. scire . . . scio : probably an inadvertent iteration which 
Cicero would hardly have allowed to stand, had he revised this Letter 
carefully (cf. note on fieret, VIII. i). 

f orensem — laborem : the Roman lawyer of the republic was not 
allowed to receive a fee from his client. This law was evaded so 
frequently that the Emperor Claudius (41-54 a.d.), setting it aside, 
named ten thousand sesterces as the maximum fee for an advocate. 
This was the beginning of flagrant abuses perpetrated upon clients 
by unscrupulous lawyers, who thenceforward lived in affluence. 
Men of the lowest rank professed to be versed in the law ; and plead- 
ing, instead of seeking honor alone as its reward, became venal. 
Efforts were made from time to time to combat this condition of 
affairs, but without permanent success. 

Po^iriSos, * ox-eyed,' — an epithet applied frequently in th'^ 
Homeric epics to Juno. It refers here to Clodia, the notorious and 
fascinating sister of Clodius, who shared her brother's hatred of 
Cicero, — a hatred which had been rendered particularly bitter 
by some public remarks of Cicero which hinted at improper relations 
between the brother and sister (see Ad Alt. 2. i. 5). 



I02 aCERO'S LETTERS 

consanguinetis : Clodius. 

non mediocres — denuntiat : cf . X. 4. 

negat . . . fert, * (though) he denies ' . . . * (yet) he boasts.' 

Credibile non est, * you cannot realize.' 

ponam : cf. note on quern ad modum^ I. 

pennagni: see G. 382; A. 355. b, note 2; B. 211. 3. a. 

nostra: see G. 381; A. 355. a; B. 211. i. a. 

comitiis : i.e., of tribunes (cf. note on trihunis pi. designatis, 
XIX. i), Oct. 18, when Clodius was to be elected. In order that he 
might be eligible for the office of tribunus plebis, this wily schemer 
had himself adopted into a plebeian family, thus deliberately casting 
aside his aristocracy. — For the case of comitiis, cf . note on spec- 
taculis, X. 3. 

declarato illo: sc. Clodio; i.e., after the official announcement of 
the result of the election. The tribunes did not enter upon office 
until December tenth. — Cicero, though fully aware of the deadly 
enmity of Clodius, still failed to realize how great his own peril was. 
Had he been thoroughly cognizant of Clodius' power and backing, 
he would doubtless have opposed actively his candidacy. 

Xn. Ad Atticum 2. 25. Rome, before Nov. i, 59. 

1. volam — fecisse, *I want you to inform him that I have done 
so.' 

nuper — scripsisse: in 2. 20, 2. 21, and 2. 22. 

Varronis : M. Terentius Varro (11 6-2 7), the great Roman polymath. 
Cicero, in Ad AU. 13. 18, refers to him as homo ro\vypa<pi!fTaTos (* the 
most voluminous writer '). We learn from Aulus Gellius, the anti- 
quarian of the second century a.d., that Varro declared he had 
written four hundred and ninety * books ' (not separate treatises, of 
course) by the end of his seventieth year. He probably wrote 
others before his death. We have only one work of his complete, — 
De Re Rustica, — in three books. Of the treatise, De Lingua 
Latina, in twenty-five books, only V-X survive. There are, besides, 
considerable fragments of his Saturae Menippeae. The titles of the 
lost works show that Varro wrote on practically all subjects of con- 
temporary interest and importance. 

officio : cf. note on meorum officiorum, IV. 2. 

tibi voluptati : cf. note on nobis curaest, I. 

mallem . . . scripsisses : cf. note on cuperem, IX. 4. 

non quo faceret, * not because he was doing it.' — For non quo with 
the subjunctive, see G. 541, note 2; A. 540, note 3; B. 286. i. b. 
— Cicero in two previous letters to Atticus — 2. 20 and 2. 21 — 



NOTES 103 

had said Varro satis facit nobis and Varro mihi satis facit. The 
meaning probably is, * Varro is very friendly toward me.' 

mirabiliter enim moratus est, ' for he is fearfully and wonderfully 
constructed.' 

IXiicrd Kal ov84v: the whole clause (Euripides, Andromache 
448-449) is, iXiKTd. Ko^d^p i/yiis dXXd tSLp rripi^ (ppovovvres, * thinking 
tortuous thoughts, naught honest, but all roundabout' (Winstedt). 

rds T«v KparoiivTttv: Euripides, Phoenician Women 393, — 'one 
must bear the follies of rulers ' (rAs rdv Kparo^vrutv dfiaOias <f>4p€iv xp^tiy). 

Hortalus: Q. Hortensius Hortalus (114-50), Cicero's rival and 
friend, — a polished and able orator. For Cicero's opinion of him, 
see Brutus 88. 301-303. 

Flacci: L. Valerius Flaccus, who was praetor during Cicero's 
consulship and a strong ally of the consul in the Catilinarian troubles. 

illo tempore Allobrogum: in 63, Catiline's satellites in Rome 
attempted to induce ambassadors of the AUobroges (a powerful 
Gallic tribe) to enlist their nation on the side of the conspiracy. 
The ambassadors refused to do this and informed Cicero of the 
proposals made to them (see In Catilinam 3. 2-5 ; Sallust, De 
Catilinae Coniuratione 40-41, 44-47). 

diceret: shortly before this letter was written, Hortensius and 
Cicero had defended Flaccus, who was being tried for extortion 
during his propraetorship in Asia Minor, 62-60. 

Sic habeto, * believe me.' 

potuisse dici : impersonal. Translate, * he could not have spoken.' 

Ei — vole, * I should be very glad if you would write him that I 
sent you word of this.' 

2. scribas : cf . note on quid . . . invitemy VIII. 2. 

egi tecum, * begged you.' 

re publica ... lis: see G. 403; A. 406; B. 217. 

quorum opera, * because of whose policy it is so.' — The reference 
is to the triumvirs. — For the case of opera, cf. note on dolore, X. 5. 

odio : ablative of manner, with hahetur or ducitur understood. 

Nos — muniti sumus: Cicero's persistent blindness to the im- 
pending catastrophe is still painfully apparent. 

molestia : see G. 390; A. 401-402; B. 214. i. a-c. 

brevier: cf. note on hrevior^ II. i. 

brevi tempore : see G. 393; A. 423. i; B. 231. 

Xm. Ad Atticum 3. 3. On the journey, about April 5, 58. 

In the third book of letters to Atticus there is a complete change 
of tone. Clodius, having entered upon his oflSce, had a bill passed 



I04 aCERO'S LETTERS 

forbidding fire and water to any man who put to death a Roman 
citizen without trial. Cicero, perceiving that the measure was 
directed against himself, left the city, whereupon Clodius proposed 
and put through another bill which definitely forbade Cicero fire 
and water. The Triumvirate, fearing Cicero's power and influence 
in Rome, gave this bill their moral, if not active, support. The exile, 
after a little time spent in flitting about southern Italy, went to 
Thessalonica, there to spend the larger part of his period of banish- 
ment. The letters written in exile show the proud " savior of his 
country " overwhelmed with shame and grief. 

XJtinam . . . videam : cf. note on utinam adesses^ X. 5. 

Vibonem: Vibo was a Greek town on the southwest coast of 
Bruttium (Magna Graecia). 

quo, * whither.' 

multis de causis, ' for many reasons.' The chief was, perhaps, that 
he could easily react Sicily from that point. At this time Cicero 
planned to go to Malta by way of Sicily. 

veneris . . . potero ; feceris, mirabor : see note on veneris y VIII. 2. 

XrV. Ad Atticum 3. 5. Thurii, April 10, 58. 

agit gratias : i.e., in her letters. 

Si . . . sin : cf. note on si . . . sin. III. i. 

erunt agenda: cf. note on esse ferendum, X. 3. 

tantum, ' only.* This sense comes easily from that of * so much * 
(* no more '). 

me ipsum : t.e., " you have ever been bound to me by ties of 
sincere personal affection, which even public disgrace is powerless 
to sever." 

amore: see G. 400; A. 415; B. 224. 

mea, * my property.' 

mihi: see G. 345, remark i; A. 381; B. 188. 2. d. — Note the 
alliteration and repetition in mei mea mihi . . . me. 

Thuri: Thuriis is probably the better reading. Cf. note on 
Romae . . . AtheniSy II. i. — Thurii was an important Greek city in 
Lucania. 

XV. Ad Atticum 3.4. On the road between Vibo and Brundi- 

sium, April 13, 58. 

miseriae . . . inconstantiae : datives. 

a Vibone : see note on ab Appi Foro, VII. 

quo te arcessebamus : i.e., in Letter XIII. 



NOTES lOS 

rogatio : the second bill proposed by Clodius, directed specifically 
against Cicero (see introductory note to Letter XIII). 

in qua — eius modi, * in which the amendment of which I had 
heard was this.' 

quadringenta milia : the original bill simply forbade Cicero fire 
and water, that is, was a general condemnation to exile ; the amend- 
ment compelled him to withdraw to some place more than four 
hundred miles from Rome. 

illo, * there,' i.e.j to Vibo. 

iter : object of contuH, with whose subject the participle versus 
agrees. 

Bnmdisium : a town on the east coast of Italy, opposite Epirus, 
where travelers for Greece usually embarked. 

ante diem rogationis : i.e., before the final passage of the bill. 

ne et : for et ne; a careless error. 

Sicca — periret : the bill proposed by Clodius contained a clause 
making it unlawful for any one to shelter the exile within the fouf 
hundred mile limit. 

Melitae esse non licebat : Malta was less than four hundred miles 
from Rome. 

si modo recipiemnr, * if only I shall be received.' Cicero evidently 
expected Atticus to understand that he intended to go to Epirus. 
Inasmuch as Atticus lived there a large part of the time, he could 
naturally wield considerable influence with the governor, Saturninus, 
upon whom the manner of Cicero's reception would depend (cf. note 
on ad te, XXI. i). 

mi Pomponi: for the forms, see G. $$. 2, and 100, remark i; 
A. 49. c, and no. a, note; B. 25. i, and 86. 2. — Cicero rarely uses 
Atticus' notnen, and its occurrence here indicates not only the inti- 
macy between the two men, but also the great strain under which 
Cicero was laboring. 

valde paenitet vivere : Cicero apparently contemplated suicide 
during the early days of his banishment ; and though he thanks 
Atticus for compelling him to live (see Letter XIII), it is doubtful 
if he would have had the courage to end his life with his own hand. 

haec coram : sc. dicemus. Such colloquial abbreviation is quite 
common in the Letters. 

XVI. Ad Atticum 3. 6. Near Tarentum, April 17, 58. 

fuerat : cf. note on dederam, VII. 

mihi: see G. 349; A. 373; B. 190. 

Tarenti : Tarentum was a Greek town on the western coast of the 



io6 CICERO'S LETTERS 

Calabrian peninsula. — The Tarentines were at war with the 
Romans from 281 to 272. By the help of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, 
they held off the invaders for five years. But the Greek monarch 
was defeated at Beneventum in 275 and withdrew from Italy; three 
years later the city fell into the hands of the Roman legions. 

visurus essem : cf. note on conciliatura coniuncturaqtie sit^ IV. 2. 

idque — pertinuit, ' and that was of importance to me in many 
respects ' (Shuckburgh). 

ut — consisteremus, * with regard to my sojourn in Epirus.' Cf. 
note on si modo recipiemur, XV. 

Cyzicum : Cyzicus was a Greek city on the island of Cyzicus in the 
Propontis. Alexander the Great built a mole connecting it with the 
mainland of Mysia, in Asia Minor. — Instead of spending the period 
of his banishment there, as he had planned to do, Cicero stopped 
at Thessalonica (cf. introductory note to Letter XIII). 

Tarentino : sc. agroj i.e., * from the neighborhood of Tarentum.' 

XVn. Ad Familiares 14. 4. Brundisium, April 29, 58. 

This letter was written on the eve of Cicero's departure for Greece. 
— On Brundisium, see XV. 

suis : in agreement with the three names. 

1. Ego — possum: Terentia had probably complained of the 
infrequency of her husband's letters. 

minus: for the comparison, see G. 93; A. 218. a; B. 77. i. 

ad vos, * to you and the household.' 

propterea quod, * because.' 

cum . . . tum, * not only ' . . . ' but also.' SeeG. 588; A. 323. g; 
B. 290. 2. 

scribo . . . lego : for cum with the indicative, see note on veneri- 
mus, 1. 

vestras : sc. liUeras. 

conficior lacrimis, * I am exhausted with weeping.' 

possim : cf. note on patiare, IV. 3. 

Quodutinam, * but O that.' See G. 610, remark 2 ; A. 397. a 
B. 185. 2. Cf. also quodsi, below. 

vitae: cf. G. 374; A. 349; B. 204. 

vidissemus : apodosis of contrary to fact condition, past time ; 
the protasis is implied in the iitiiiam clause. — Cicero may be signify- 
ing, at this point, a wish that he had fought Clodius to the death, 
or even that he had died by his own hand, rather than submit to 
the disgrace of banishment (cf. note on valde paenitet vivere, XV). 

aliquam alicuius . . . aliquando : Cicero, in spite of his tears, was 



NOTES 107 

still fully aware of the effectiveness of repetition as a rhetorical 
device. Abject helplessness could not be better expressed than it is 
here ; cf . also note on mihiy XIV. — The words in this tortuous 
clause should be taken up in the following order : qnodsi fortuna 
reservavil nos ad aliquant spent recuperandi alicuius commodi alt- 
quando. 

recuperandi : with commodi, objective genitive after spem (cf . 
note on deleciationis, I). — Is recuperandi gerund or gerundive? 
See G. 427; A. 503. a; B. 339. i. 

minus — nobis, * I did not make so great a mistake.' 

mea vita : colloquial, — * my darling.' 

dii — servivi: Cicero makes here, perhaps unintentionally, a very 
interesting comment on contemporary religious conditions. Be- 
lief in the old gods of Rome had grown less and less general, until, at 
this period, women were practically the only sincere worshipers. It is 
true that the traditional feast days were still observed, and sacrifices 
and oblations were duly made ; but all this was mere formality, for 
the average Roman citizen had lost interest in the gods of his fathers. 
A fertile field was thus prepared for the introduction, in the empire, 
of the cults of Mithras, Osiris, and other foreign deities. — In neque 
— rettulerunty Cicero is somewhat unfair to the many men who 
wrought valiantly in his behalf at Rome during his term of banish- 
ment, and also to his friends away from the city, who, like Sicca 
(XV), Laenius Flaccus (2), and Plan ci us (XXIV. i), entertained 
him at great risk to themselves. 

2. periculum — sui: cf. note on 5/cca — periret^XY. 

neque — praestaret, * nor was he deterred, through fear of the 
penalty imposed by a wicked decree, from discharging the rights and 
courtesies of hospitality and friendship.' 

praestaret: cf. note on neque — recusamus, IX. i. 

possimus : with uHnam, referring to future time. 

habebimus : sc. gratiam. 

3. profecti sumus . . . petebamus : epistolary tenses. 

a. d. n Kal. Mai. : the usual form would be pridie Kal. Mai. — 
Cicero frequently omits a. d. at the end of his letters. — Cf. note on 
ante diem XVI Kal. Maias, VI. i. 

Cyzicum : cf. note on Cyzicum, XVI. 

me : cf. note on me misernm, X. i. 

Quid, ' why.' 

rogem : deliberative subjunctive. See note on quid . . . inviiemy 
VIII. 2. 

mulierem : in apposition with te. 



io8 CICERO'S LETTERS 

corpore . . . animo: cf. note on voce . . . vultUy VI. i. 

Non rogem : cf. note on rogenty above. 

opinor : used parenthetically. See note on opinofy VI. i . 

confinnes : " The present subjunctive of the definite second person 
singular in positive commands is of rather frequent occurrence ** 
(Abbott, In trod. 84. b). It may be added that this is an instance of 
the so-called jussive subjunctive, which, when used for the impera- 
tive, belongs to colloquial Latin. 

transactum est, * it's all over with me.' 

fac: for the form, see G. 130. 5 ; A. 182 ; B. 116. 3. 

perisse : full form, periisse. 

quid — fiet, * what will become of my dear Tullia? ' Note the 
diminutive form, Tulliolay denoting, as often, affection. Such 
forms are not common in formal writing, but they occur with great 
frequency in the sermo pleheius. The informal tone of most of the 
Letters explains Cicero's somewhat frequent use of them. — Tullia 
was the one pure and unalloyed joy of her father's life. He loved 
her with an almost romantic affection, and her death, in February, 
45, was a blow from which he never recovered. — For the case of 
Tulliola, see G. 401, remark 7; A. 403. c; B. 218. 6. 

lam — videte, * you must now attend to this matter.' The ref- 
erence is to Tullia's dowry, which had not been paid in full. She had 
married C. Calpurnius Piso in 63. 

mihi : for the case, cf. note on mihiy IX. 4. 

dest : for deest. 

quoquo — habebit, * however matters shall stand.' 

matrimonio et famae, ^ the happiness and good repute of her 
wedlock.' — For the case, cf . note on Us, X. i . — Observe that the 
verb, serviendum est, is passive and is used impersonally (see G. 217; 
A. 372; B. 187. II. b). 

Cicero meus : Cicero's little son, Marcus, now about seven years 
old. 

sit: see G. 263; A. 439; B. 274. 

utrum — spoliata, 'whether you have anything left, or, as I fear, 
are absolutely destitute.' Cicero's residence was burned on the 
day of his departure from the city, and Terentia, who had fled for 
refuge to Vesta's shrine; was haled before a banker and closely 
questioned concerning her husband's property (cf. XXIII, passim). 
— For the construction, see G. 458; A. 335; B. 300. 4. 

4. De familia liberata, ' concerning the manumission of the slaves.* 
Terentia was selfishly concerned about the status of her slaves, 
probably on account of a rumor that Cicero had freed them along 



NOTES 109 

with his own. He assures her at this point that her slaves still 
remain subject to her will and pleasure, and that he has left due 
directions concerning his own. These directions follow immediately. 

moveat: cf. note on qui Romam proficiscantur, II. i. 

esset meritus : ut is here to be translated ' as ' ; why, then, the sub- 
junctive? See note on verererCy IV. 3. 

est ... in officio, ' is faithful to us.' 

ceterorum — est, * this is the status of the rest of the slaves,* 
i.e. J Cicero's. 

si — abisset : ».e., if his property had been confiscated. — The verb 
in this clause represents an original future perfect indicative, and is 
subjunctive because of the implied indirect discourse. See G. 508. 2, 
657. 5, 6, 7 ; A. 589. a. 3 (last example), 592 ; B. 314. 2, 319. • Note 
also poiuissentf below. 

essent . . . servirent: substantive clauses of purpose, introduced 
by ut. 

si optinere potuissent, ' if they can establish their right to 
manumission ' (" against those who might urge that the penalties 
of confiscation were being thus evaded," — Tyrrell). 

sin — pertinerent, * but if the property [sc. res, as subject] still 
remains in my control.' — Observe that the sequence throughout 
this sentence is secondary, following ea causa est. This is due to the 
implied understanding that the decision concerning the slaves had 
been made previously. Note also protnissum est, above. — The 
sense is, " Sometime ago I made an arrangement about the slaves, 
which is as follows." . 

praeterquam : adverb, * except.' 

oppido : an adverb, rather colloquial in its nature. 

5. quod: see G. 525. 2; A. 572. a; B. 299. 2. 

sim: cf. note on sis, III. 2. 

recuperandae : cf . note on recuperandi, i . 

nunc — accipiam: the delivery of letters in ancient times was 
necessarily slow and uncertain. This was particularly true in the 
case of correspondence with an exile in a foreign land. See also 
introduction, section 3. 

esset licitum : a colloquialism. The sermo urbanus would demand 
licuisset. 

tempestatem : sc. secundam. 

ut — honestissime, * as honorably as you can.' 

nisi quod — amisimus: another reference to suicide. — Nisi 
quod — * save that ' (literally, * except to what extent '). 

una : to be construed with cum, * together with.' 



no CICERO'S LETTERS 

omamentis, ' honors.' 

me : sc. confirmare. 

6. Philhetaerum : a Greek name, signifying 'friend-loving.' 
A large number of Roman cognomina were originally given on account 
of some personal deformity or peculiarity. For example, Calvus 
means * Baldy ' ; CrassuSj * Fatty * ; PlautuSy ' Flatfoot,* etc. 
Cicero is derived from cicefj ' pease,' and may have signified that 
the ancestors of the great consul were exceptionally good at raising 
that vegetable. On the other hand, cicer may mean a * chickpea,' 
or * wart.' 

quod . . . impediebatur : for the mood, see G. 540; A. 540; 
B. 286. I. 

Sallustius . . . Pescennius : probably slaves or f reedmen. So also 
Clodius Philhetaerus, above. 

Sicca : see XV. 

quod potes, ' as far as you can.* — Strictly speaking, poles should 
be possis (A. 535. d; B. 283. 5). But see also G. 627, remark 2, for 
a different view. 

vehementius: see G. 93; A. 218; B. 76. 2, for the comparison. 

Terentia: cf. note on Terentiay III. i. Estrangement had not 
yet cast its shadow between husband and wife. 

Pr. K. Mai. : cf. note on a. d. II Kal. Mai.y 3. 

XVni. Ad Atticum 3. 12. Thessalonica, July 17, 58. 

1. quid sit sperandum, ' what there is to hope for.' 
per senatum : the Roman senate was composed, theoretically, of 
ex-magistrates, that is, of those who had held one or more of the 
ofl&ces in the senatorial cursus honorum (see note on considihusy 
III. i). After the period of the kings {circ. 750-500), the consuls 
nominated the senators — who usually served for life. In 351 the 
lex Ovinia placed the power of nomination where it more properly 
belonged, — in the hands of the two censors, — whose duty it was 
to make, within eighteen months after their entrance into their 
office, a register of citizens and their property, and to assign each 
man to his proper class (censors were elected every five years, as a 
rule). The number of senators varied. Up to the time of Sulla 
(82-79) there were three hundred or less. At the period of this 
letter there were probably nine hundred or a thousand, while the 
emperors had a body of some six hundred. See also note on curiam^ 
LXI. ^. 

idemque — liceat, *and, at the same time, you write that the 
section of the bill prohibiting any mention of my case in the senate 



NOTES I I I 

is being displayed.* This prohibition was another piece of Clodius* 
iniquitous activity against his fallen foe. — Idem = * likewise * 
(see G. 310; A. 298. b; B. 248). 

siletur, ' there is silence,' — impersonal ; equivalent to omnes 
silent. 

Hie, " and on top of that information." 

adflictem : cf. note on vererere, IV. 3. 

sim adflictus: see G. 587; A. 549; B. 309. 3. 
. secundum : a preposition. 

comitia : sc. consularia. Cf . note on consulibus, III. i . — Atticus 
evidently hoped that the new consuls, who were to be elected about 
Aug. I, would be favorable to the exile. 

Quae ista est : sc. spes. 

eodem . . . consule : ablatives absolute. — The reference is to 
Clodius and Metellus Nepos. The latter, as tribune in 63, had been 
Cicero's enemy; but as consul, — in 57, — he changed his attitude 
entirely. 

2. Percussisti — prolata, *you have shocked me with your tidings 
about the publication of my speech.' The oration referred to was 
written as an attack on the elder Curio and Clodius, but was not 
published by Cicero. Fragments which have come down to us show 
that it was very violent. — In 61 Clodius had been tried for a violation 
of the mysteries of Bona Dea^ a deity worshiped by Roman matrons. 
Curio defended the culprit and obtained his acquittal by bribery, 
although Cicero gave certain evidence which completely destroyed 
the carefully framed alibi presented to the jurors. Later, he 
aroused again Clodius' bitter animosity by trouncing him in a 
warm exchange of personalities in the senate (see Ad Att. i. 16. 
9-10). 

irulneri : dative with medere (imperative of medeor) ; see G. 346, 
remark 2 ; A. 367. b. 

olim, * some time ago.' 

Quo mode, ' how.' — Modo is ablative of manner. 

Sed — concertarem, *but since I have never happened to have 
one word of dispute with him.' — Concertarem is subjunctive in a 
substantive clause of result. See G. 553. 3; A. 569. 2; »B. 297. 

negligentius, * rather more carelessly.' The oration was, in all 
probability, written in a fit of anger on account of some screed of 
Curio's (cf. above, quod tile prior scripserat). 

puto — meam: such a course of procedure would appear to us 
most dishonorable. It is necessary, however, to bear in mind 
Cicero's condition and the consequent mental strain under which he 



112 CICERO'S LETTERS 

labored. Further, it is quite possible that some enemy secured a 
copy of the " suppressed " oration and published it. 

Id : object of cures. Render, 'this matter.* 

cures velim : cf. notes on velitn and desy I. 

minus laboro, ' I do not care so much.* 

3. eodem in loco : i.e., in Thessalonica. 

venires : cf. note on sisj III. 2. 

op^ra tua, * by your exertions.* 

istic : in Rome. 

posse : render, * you would not be able.* The verb possum lacks 
the future infinitive; hence, its present infinitive is frequently em- 
ployed with future significance. 

scribam : cf . note on qui Romam proficiscantufj II. i . 

vestra: that is, the exile expects letters from other friends as 
well as from Atticus. 

magis, * rather.* 

XVI Kal. Sextiles : cf. note on Idibus Febr.y I. 

Thessalonicae : Thessalonica was a flourishing city in Macedonia. 

XIX. Ad Atticum 3. 13. Thessalonica, August 5, 58. 

1. Quod : cf. note on quod, XVII. 5. 

Epiro : Cicero was holding himself in readiness to leave Thessa- 
lonica and go to the west coast as soon as favorable news was brought 
to him from Rome. He would then be able to sail for Italy imme- 
diately on receipt of the formal notice of recall. 

evanescere : a so-called inchoative or inceptive verb. See 
G. 133. V, 191. 2; A. 263. i; B. 155. I. — Render, *was beginning 
to vanish.* 

quoad . . . scriberes: for the construction, see G. 572; A. 553; 
B. 293. III. 2. 

quod — scripseras: see XVIII. i. 

fore uti — ageretur, 'that some action concerning me would be 
taken in the senate.* — The infinitive fore depends on scripseras. 
— For the mood of ageretur, see G. 553. 3 and 4, remark 3 ; A. 569. a ; 
B. 270. 3, and 297. 2. 

Pompeium : for Pompey*s attitude toward Cicero, see notes on IV. 
Pompey was now a member of the First Triumvirate, and so could 
speak with authority on such subjects as the recall of exiles. As 
a matter of fact, about two and a half months later, eight of the 
ten tribunes proposed a bill permitting Cicero to return (see Ad 
Alt. 3. 23), but they apparently make no great efifort to secure its 
passage, realizing that their colleague, Clodius, would surely veto it. 



NOTES 113 

comitia habita sunt : about the first of August. 

proinde — esse, * I shall view the matter just as if you had written 
that nothing was done.' 

meque — feram, 'and I chall not regret that I have been dis- 
appointed in my hope — which endured only a little while.' 

motum, ' movement.' This may refer to a threatened discord in 
the Triumvirate (see Ad Att. 3. 8. 3), but such an interpretation is 
by no means certain. 

fore : futurus esse might have been used. 

eum : i.e.y motum. 

tribunis pi. designatis : the tribunes who would enter upon office 
December tenth, when Clodius' term would expire. Among the 
number were several who were friends of the exile. — Tribunes were 
granted to the common people after their secession to the Mons 
Sacer in 494. Five were elected originally by the curiae and 
later by concilia plebis. The number was afterwards increased 
to ten, and elections were conducted by the comitia trihuta^ an 
assembly in which the patricians were of little consequence. The 
persons of the tribunes were held to be sacred, and they had the 
privilege of vetoing bills proposed by any officer of the government. 
Their power was, therefore, almost boundless. In 48 the tribunicia 
potestas was bestowed on Caesar, and during the empire each 
emperor received it yearly by vote of the senate. Tribunes con- 
tinued to be elected until the reign of Constantine (324-337 a.d.), 
but their power was negligible. 

Quam si ezpectaro : that is, " if I indulge in no premature hopes." 
— With quam, supply spem. 

non erit — defuisse, * there will be no reason for you to think 
that I have been indifferent to my own interests or to the efforts of my 
supporters.* 

2. Quod : the construction is similar to that at the beginning of 
this letter (see, too, quod scribis, below). 

debes ignoscere : supply mihi. 

ut — audieris, *that you have neither seen nor heard of one more 
so.* — Some editors add magis in this clause. — For neminem . . . 
nee . . . nee, see G. 445; A. 327. 2; B. 347. 2. 

mentis errore, ' insanity.* 

mihi : dative of reference. 

Atque — fuisset : again we have an allusion to suicide. The 
implication is, that, had he been in full possession of his faculties, 
he would have died by his own hand rather than submit to banish- 
ment. 



114 CICERO^S LETTERS 

tarn : that is, " as sound as it is now.*' 

cum — usus sum * (at the time) when I found,* etc. 

ut, * when.' See G. 561; A. 543; B. 287. i. 

sic impulenmt, * so wrought.' 

abuterentur : abuH usually means * to abuse,' but here it signifies 
* to employ fully.' 

Cyzicum : accusative. — Eundum est is second periphrastic, im- 
personal. — Cicero did not carry out his plan of going to Cyzicus 
(cf. note on Cyzicum , XVI). 

quo rarius . . . hoc diligentius, ' the less often ' . . . ' the more 
diligently.' — For the case of quo and hoCj cf. note on multOy II. i. 

incolumem : that is, with his position as a citizen and gentleman 
unaffected by his brother's disgrace. 

relinquo : the regular construction would require the future per- 
fect, or possibly the future. 

Sextilibus : cf. note on Idibus Febr.^ I. 

XX. Ad Atticum 3. 18. Thessalonica, September, 58. 

1. Varronem : cf. note on Varronis, XII. i. 
pro amicitia, ' out of friendship.' 

simul: usually written simul atque or simul ac. Cf. note on ut, 
XIX. 2. — Why is remissae essent subjunctive? 

Caesare : Caesar was in Gaul at this time, engaged in his cam- 
paign against Ariovistus and the Germans {De Bello Gallico i. 30 ff.). 

actorem : that is, some one to take personal charge of Cicero's case. 

Utrum — fuit, * did that amount to nothing? * 

eundem : Pompey. 

* secundum comitia ' : cf. XVIII. i. 

2. vides, ' realize.' 

humanitatis : see G. 366, remark 2 ; A. 343. c. ; B. 198. 3. 

fac : observe the repetition, which here expresses intense earnest- 
ness. 

spei: cf. note on vitae, XVII. i. 

animi, * courage.' 

temere : an adverb. 

Fac . . . ut : unusual. Ut is regularly omitted with fac and the 
subjunctive in the Letters. 

quae — possunt, 'which can be discovered by your efforts.' 

XXI. Ad Atticum 3. 19. Thessalonica, September 15, 58. 

1. adferebantur : for the mood, see G. 569; A. 555; B. 293. III. i. 
esset: cf. note on patiare, IV. 3. 



NOTES I I 5 

actio : that is, prospect for the final settlement of Cicero's troubles. 

celebritas, ' a crowd of people ' (Shuckburgh). In Asia Minor 
Cicero would probably have attracted considerable attention, for 
there were a number of literary centers in that country where his 
works must have been well known. 

ad te, ' to your .villa.* Atticus had a country house in Epirus 
near an ancient shrine of Amalthea (a nymph who served as nurse 
to the infant Jupiter in Crete). According to some authorities, he 
made the shrine itself into a beautiful summer home (cf. note on 
si modo recipiemur, XV). 

mea : cf. note on nostra^ XI. 3. 

interesset: cf. note on non quo facer et^ XII. i. 

omnino : this adverb should logically be translated with the non 
quo clause. 

fugerem: cf. G. 633; A. 535. e; B. 283. 3. 

tuo portu : the port of Buthrotum, near which Atticus* villa stood, 
was about one hundred miles south of Dyrrachium (cf. note on his 
— dahOf V. 2). 

ea : sc. solus. 

abiecero : still another reference to suicide. 

2. pauds: see G. 392; A. 413; B. 222. 

aliorum: Cicero's other friends clearly did not understand his 
nature as Atticus did. The exile, though in the depths of despair, 
preferred a plain, unvarnished statement of conditions and prospects, 
even when such a statement but added to his woe (cf. XX. 2). 

quoniam — agi, * since a movement (for my recall) has been set on 
foot.* 

Sesti: Sestius was one of the tribunes-designate (cf. note on 
trihunis pi. designatis^ XIX. i), and was known to be friendly to 
Cicero. See also note on rogatio Sesti, XXII. 3. 

quod scripsi supra : cf. note on abiecero, i. 

3. rebus: cf. note on molestia, XII. 2. 
consiliariis, ' advisers.' 

iuves: this subjunctive, with the six others which follow it, depends 
on oro atque obsecro, at the beginning of 3 (cf. note on sis, III. 2). 

qui — salvus, * who is not past salvation ' (Winstedt). 

istic, * there (where you are),' i.e., in Rome. — Istic is of course 
derived from isle, the pronoun of the second person. 

si minus, ' if not.' See G. 592, remark; A. 329. a; B. 306. 2. a. 

invisas, * come to see me.' 

mihique — potest, *and that you will grant me enough land to 
be buried in.' 



ii6 CICERO'S LETTERS 

XXII. Ad Atticum 3. 20. Thessalonica, October 4, 58. 

Cicero — Attico: the formal salutation is employed jestingly 
here. Atticus' uncle, Q. Caecilius, who had just died, had adopted 
Atticus as his heir and had bequeathed to him his substantial fortune 
(cf. note on CaecUium, X. 5). According to custom, Atticus now 
assumed the praenomen and the nomen.oi his uncle, retaining his own 
nomen (in adjectival form) and cognomen. 

1. quod refers to the salutation as a whole. 

functum esse officio, * dealt generously with you.' — For the case 
of officio J see note on metu, X. 2. 

mihi . . . uti : see G. 346, remark 2, and 422, note 4; A. 455. i ; 
B. 327. I. 

Me miserum : for the case, cf . note on me miserum, X. i . — Cicero 
declines to allow himself one moment of unalloyed happiness, even 
in the contemplation of his friend's good fortune. 

quam — sententia, *how completely everything would be to my 
liking.* 

essent . . . defuisset: see G. 597, remark i; A. 517. a; B. 
304. 2. 

Quae colligere nolo, * but I won't review these circumstances ' 
(Shuckburgh). 

tibi: see G. 350; A. 377; B. 188. i. 

certo scio, * I know for a certainty ' (as opposed to certe scio, * I, at 
least, know '). 

per fortunas, * in the name of good luck and bad * (Winstedt). 

incumbe : sc. te, * bend all your energies.' 

diemque natalem : Cicero would regard the day of his return to 
his former position as a second birthday. It is a strange coincidence 
that he actually reached Brundisium, on his journey home from exile, 
on the birthday of his daughter. That day was also the anniversary 
of the founding of the colony of Brundisium and of the dedication of 
the temple of SaluSj which stood near Atticus' home in Rome (on 
the Quirinal Hill). See XXIX. 4. 

spei : cf. note on vulneriy XVIII. 2. 

apud te : that is, in Atticus' villa near Buthrotum (see note on 
tuo portUy XXI. i). 

nos non : I follow Tyrrell here in insisting upon non (though he 
deletes nos). If Cicero were to spend any considerable time with 
Atticus, his interests might suflFer, since Atticus' further activities 
would likely be interpreted at Rome as being not spontaneous, but 
personally directed by the exile. 



NOTES 117 

2. De domo : Atticus had proposed to Cicero some plans for the 
protection of the latter's residence in Rome. 

Curionis oratione : a speech directed against the exile. 

In universa salute : the notion is, " in a clean bill of civil and 
political health." 

ea : i.e., saliis. 

Sed — nominatim, *but I am giving you no specific injunctions.* 

occupatione, * legal entanglements ' (in connection with Caecilius* 
will). 

Quod: see G. 525. 2; A. 572; B. 299. i. — The idea of the first 
two clauses is, " in spite of the fact that you are already doing more 
for me than everybody else put together, you are now promising me 
all your resources, to be used in behalf of my safe return." 

ut — iuver: a concessive clause. See G. 608; A. 527. a; B. 308. 

praeter ceteros, * more thati by all others.' 

suscipere . . . sustinere : complementary infinitives, depending 
upon posse (see G. 423; A. 456; B. 328). 

neque — rogandum esse, * nor must you be urged to do so.* 

3. quicquam : accusative, subject of accidisse. 
accidisse ad animum tuum, ^ had occurred to you.' 

secus, * wrongfully ' (i.e., "otherwise than it should have been "). 

yideretur: see note on qui Romam proficiscaniur, II. i. 

geram tibi morem, * I will humor you ' (lit., * I will carry my habit 
for you,* or, * to please you '). 

eo . . . quo : cf. note on quo rarius . . . hoc diligeniius, XIX. 2. — 
Render these two clauses, * nevertheless I shall be the more your 
debtor by the excess of your kindness to me over mine to you.* — 
Fuerit is future perfect indicative. 

Rogatio Sesti : cf. note on tribunis pi. designatis, XIX. i, and on 
Sestiy XXI. 2. Sestius' bill, which he planned to present imme- 
diately on his entry into office, had been sent to Cicero for his 
examination. 

Nam — scribi, * for it ought to mention me definitely, and the 
section concerning my property should be more carefully composed.* 

feni . . . scribi : see G. 422, note 4; A. 565, note 3 ; B. 327. i. 

XXIII. Ad Familiares 14. 2. Thessalonica, October 5, 58. 

1. longiores epistulas : sc. quam ad te. 
nisi si quis : cf. note on nisi si quid, VIII. i. 
cui — oportere, * who, I feel, should be answered.* 
idque — debui, * and it was my duty to guarantee this.' — Id refers 
to the thought of the preceding clause, especially as seen in heatissimas. 



ii8 CICERO'S LETTERS 

timidi : observe the change from singular to plural. The meaning 
is, " if I and my advisers had not been such cowards." Cicero 
implies that, had he spurned Atticus* advice and met Clodius with 
open resistance, all would have been well. 

2. Pisonem : Tullia's husband (cf. note on iam — videte, XVII. 3). 

merito eius, * as he deserves.' Piso had wrought valiantly in 
Cicero's behalf, both to prevent his banishment and afterwards to 
bring about his recall. — Some authorities construe merito as instru- 
mental ablative, taking the sense to be * through his earnings (con- 
duct),' etc. 

novis tr. pi. : cf. note on tribunis pi. designatis, XIX. i. 

voluntas : sc. firma. 

Crassum : M. Licinius Crassus, who was a member of the First 
Triumvirate, was the wealthiest man in Rome. His hostility to 
Cicero dated back to 66, when the orator, in his speech for the 
Manilian Law, had slighted him, while extolling Pompey to the skies. 
He was killed by the Parthians in 55, at the disastrous battle 
of Carrhae. 

A te — video, * I perceive that in all things you are conducting 
yourself with sublime courage and devotion.* 

casum : direct object of maereoy which is more often used intran- 
sitively (see note on illud doleOy LIV. i). 

ut — subleventur, * that my own miseries are lightened by such 
great suffering on your part.' That is, Terentia was continually 
being exposed to danger and privation in her efforts on her husband's 
behalf. 

P. Valerius : a friend of Cicero's family. 

homo officiosus, * a very thoughtful man.* 

fletu : cf. note on dignitatem X. i. 

a Vestae : sc. aede or templo. This omission is quite frequent. — 
Terentia, whose half sister was a Vestal Virgin, took refuge in 
Vesta's temple when her husband left Rome. 

tabulam Valeriam : authorities differ as to the exact significance 
of this phrase. It very probably refers to a painting on the wall of 
the Curia Hostilia (the ancient senate house), representing the sea 
fight in which Valerius Messalla defeated Hiero, king of Syracuse 
(264). Roman bankers and money-changers prosecuted their trade 
on the street ; hence, tabula Valeria may well refer to a stall near the 
painting, to which Terentia was summoned to make a formal declara- 
tion concerning her husband's property. 

Hem : a colloquial particle, here signifying grief. 

vexari . . . iacere . . . fieri : cf. note on revereri, X. i. 



NOTES 119 

qui — periremus, * who saved others, only to perish myself.* 
The allusion is to the Roman citizens whom he had saved from death 
by the execution of Catiline's fellow conspirators, — which summary 
proceeding resulted ultimately in his own banishment. 

nos : that is, " all of us." 

3. hoc — area, 'or rather about the empty space (where the 
house stood).' Cicero's residence on the Palatine Hill was destroyed 
as soon as he left Rome (cf. note on utrum — spoliata, XVII. 3). 

illud — venire, * I am distressed that you, wretched and de- 
spoiled, are compelled to share the expense which must be incurred.* 
— On illud doleOj cf. note on casum, 2. 

Quodsi — negotium, * but if things turn out well.* 

reliquias tuas: Terentia had considerable property in her own 
name. But Cicero here lovingly belittles her possessions; reliquias 
signifies " the little you have left after spending so much for me.** 

quod — attinet, * so far as expenses are concerned.* 

sine : imperative of sino. Observe that an accusative and infini- 
tive follow sine here. The subjunctive might have been used. 

sustinere : complementary infinitive. Sc. eum (sumptum). 

noli vexare: see G. 271. 2; A. 450; B. 276. b. 

mihi : cf. note on iihi^ XXII. i. 

ut sustineas : cf . note on necesse sit, X. 2. 

in te, * depends on you.' 

4. vos : true plural, — ** you, TuUia and young Marcus ** (cf . the 
salutation). 

Longius, * any farther.* 

quod : object of speremus. 

speremus : cf. note on qui Rotnatn proficiscantur^ II. i. 

XXIV. Ad Atticum 3. 22. Thessalonica and Dyrrachium, 

November 25, 58. 

1. Piso : see notes on Pisonem and merito eiusy XXIII. 2. 

essent acta : for the mood, cf. note on habuissesy XXVII. 2. 

vellem : cf . note on cuperem, IX. 4. 

perscriberes : cf . note on nequc — recusamusy IX. i . 

Plancius : quaestor of Macedonia. It was the duty of the pro- 
vincial quaestors to collect the tribute due to the state treasury 
at Rome. — Cicero had been Plancius' guest during his sojourn in 
Thessalonica. 

conatum : render with concessive force. 

Spes — decedere, * he has been cherishing a hope, which I do 
not share, that we shall be able to go back together.' — With non 



I20 CICERO'S LETTERS 

eadem quae mihiy sc. est. — Nos decedere depends upon spes (see note 
on privatos forej IX. 2). 

cum — dicentur, * when I learn that the soldiers are coming.' 
L. Calpurnius Piso, Cicero's enemy, had been appointed governor 
of Macedonia for 57, and his advance guard was expected at any 
time. — Note the personal passive, dicentur^ with a nominative and 
infinitive (see G. 528; A. 582; B. 332). 

faciendum nobis erit, * I shall have to contrive.' 

2. Lentulus : P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther, one of the consuls- 
elect, and a loyal friend of Cicero (cf. note on Lentulus ^ II. 2). 

suo — officio, * in accordance with his kindly devotion to me.' 

Pompei voluntas: Pompey and Clodius had had a rather violent 
quarrel, and the fact that the triumvir had begun to take an active 
interest in Cicero's recall was probably due more to the hatred 
engendered by this quarrel than to anything else. 

eum : Pompey. 

totum — potestate, * bound to him by strong ties.' 

Metello : Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos, consul-elect with Lentulus. 
See note on eodem . . . consule^ XVIII. i. 

speraret : cf. note on vererere^ IV. 3. 

profectum esse : not from proficiscor. — Supply tantum, as subject. 

3. mihi . . . yivere : cf. note on mihi . . . uti, XXII. i. 
cum . . . tum: cf. note on cum . . . tunty XVII. i. 

4. This section, written at Dyrrachium, is added as a postscript. 
si irem . . . eram auditurus : there is implied indirect discourse 

here, — " because (I felt sure) I should be without news, if I went," 
etc. This accounts for the mood and tense of irem. 

mei : cf . note on vitaey XVII. i . 

ad te, * to your villa.' See note on ad /e, XXI. i. 

cuicuimodi : cuiuscuiusmodi might have been used — more 
correctly, — too. 

rem : that is, actual progress in the negotiations for his recall. 

Dyrrachi : cf. note on tuo portUy XXI. i. 

XXV. Ad Atticum 3. 25. Dyrrachium, December, 58. 

Post — discessum: Atticus had left Rome at some time previous 
to this letter, and had apparently stopped in Dyrrachium to see 
Cicero. Where he was when this rather peevish communication 
was written is not known. It is probable that he did not return 
to Rome until after Cicero's triumphant entry (Sept. 4, 57), though 
Ad Att. 3. 26 (Letter XXVI) appears to imply that he was there 
temporarily in January. 



NOTES 1 2 1 

tabescendum esse : see note on evaiiescerCy XIX. i . Render, * I 
shall have to pine away.* 

subesset . . . discessisses : cf. note on essent . . . defuisset, 
XXII. I. — With discessisses f supply ab urbe. 

velle : complementary infinitive, depending on videamur. 

interire: see G. 532; A. 563. b; B. 328. i. 

una : an adverb. 

peto des : cf . the frequent instances of velim plus the subjunctive 
found in the Letters. 

te . . . sistas, * produce yourself * (or, * make good your appear- 
ance '). 

XXVI. Ad Atticum 3. 26. Dyrrachium, about the middle of 

January, 57. 

senatus consulto: Lentulus, on his first day of ofl&ce (Jan. i), 
introduced into the senate Cicero's case. Although a majority of 
the senators favored declaring the decree of banishment illegal, no 
formal action was taken. 

legum lationem : the submission of the senate's decree to a vote of 
the people, assembled in the comitia centuriata (see note on con- 
szilibus, III. i). Unless this body voted favorably, the exile would 
return to the interdicted territory at his own risk (cf. note on quctd- 
ringenta miliay XV). 

utar — senatus, * I shall avail myself of the resolution of the 
senate * (Shuckburgh). 

vita : cf . note on legum lationem^ above. 

XXVn. Ad Familiares 5. 4. Dyrrachiiim, about the middle of 

January, 57. 

M. Cicero . . . Cos. : cf. note on Metello, XXIV. 2. 

1. T. Pomponi : Atticus. 

ut — fuerit, * that I have placed as much dependence in your 
aid as in your colleague's.' 

collega: Lentulus (cf. note on Lentulus, XXIV. 2). 

constitutum fuerit: see G. 247, remark i ; A. p. 94, footnote i ; 
B. pp. 60 and 61, footnotes. 

mihi : indirect object of significabant. 

hac : adverb. Render, * through this region.' 

tibi . . . obstrepere : cf. note on tibi^ IV. 3. 

litteris: cf. note on praesidio, X. 3. 

auderem : see note on sed — concertarem^ XVIII. 2. 

2. mitissimam tuam orationem, * your very gracious speech ' 



122 CICERO'S LETTERS 

(delivered in the senate upon the proposition of Lentulus for Cicero's 
recall ; see note on senatus consuUOy XXVI). 
habuisses : subjunctive because of implied indirect discourse, — 

* which (so he informed me) you had delivered.' 

quantum — voluntas, * as earnestly as your interest in me will 
allow.' 

tuorum, * of your family connections.' This alludes to Clodius, 
whose infamous sister, Clodia (see note on /3o(Airi5o$, XI. 3), was 
the widow of Metellus Celer, the consul's brother. 

tuas inimicitias: see Ad Fam. 5. i (62 B.C.). Metellus Nepos, 
then tribune, had forbidden Cicero to deliver a valedictory address 
on the completion of his term of office, on the ground that he caused 
Roman citizens to be executed unlawfully. — Render tuas — donares 

* so that you sacrificed your personal grievances for the good of the 
State ' (donares is lit., ' made a present of '). 

alienas : i.e., of Clodius. 

in tua potestate, ' your obedient servant.' 

mihi : dative with auxiliari. 

magistratum . . . atixiliari: accusative and infinitive with 
licuerit. This construction is rather rare. 

vim : that is, the violence of Clodius. 

cimi veils — non possis, * when you long to call back the oppor- 
tunity to save everybody, you shall be unable to do so, for in that 
day there will be nobody to be saved.' This much-disputed passage 
probably means that Cicero fully realized the embarrassing position in 
which Metellus was placed through his connection with Clodius, on 
the one hand, and his desire to aid Clodius' bitterest enemy, on the 
other. Cicero suggests, therefore, that the surest way to save every- 
body concerned is to hasten his recall. Thus he himself will be 
saved from an exile's wretched death, while Clodius may be spared 
the results of a revulsion of feeling which is likely to occur at any 
time. 

qui servetur : cf. note on qui Romam proficiscaniuTj II. i. 

erit : cf. note on venerintusy I. 

non possis, * you shall be unable.' 

XXVin. Ad Atticum 3. 27. Dyrrachium, late January, 57. 

ex re ipsa, ' from the facts themselves.' On the 25th of January 
a mob in the pay of Clodius had broken up a meeting of the senate, 
called to vote on the motion for Cicero's recall. 

tui: see G. 383 and note i; A. 356 and note; B. 212. i. 

miseriis : cf . note on mihi, IX. 4. 



NOTES 123 

Ego — videbo: if Atticus was in Rome, he had probably signified 
his intention of coming shortly to Dyrrachium for a conference with 
Cicero. 

XXIX. Ad Atticum 4. i. Rome, September, 57. 

This letter is, so far as we know, the first since January, 57. 
After numerous debates and much violent opposition on the part of 
Clodius, the comitia centuriata on August fourth passed enthusiasti- 
cally the motion for Cicero's recall. He left Dyrrachium the same 
day, having probably received already information sufficiently trust- 
worthy to justify him in starting homeward. At Brundisium he 
was ecstatically welcomed. This letter gives particulars of his journey 
thence to Rome, and of his subsequent activities. 

1. Cum primum — veni: on September 4. 
recte, * safely.' 

mihi: cf. note on nobisy VI. 2. 

tibi absent! : cf. note on huic, X. 3. — Atticus was in Epirus. 

gratularer : see G. 631. 3 and remark i ; A. 571. a; B. 284. 4. 

te — diligentem : for convenience, translate with concessive force. 
— These words display a sad lack of gratitude on Cicero's part. 

pro — observantia, * in consideration of my past devotion to you * 
{pro is lit., * in proportion to *). 

eundemque te, * yet, that you.' 

erroris : that is, in interpreting Clodius' first bill as directed against 
himself and in leaving Rome so precipitously (cf . XIII, introductory 
note). — For the case of errorisy cf. note on vitae^ XVII. i. 

plurimtsinque, * most generously.' — The four genitives which 
follow depend upon plurimum (cf. note on litter aruniy III. i). 

operae, * service (lovingly rendered).' 

2. untsin — deftiisse, *the sight of you, or, rather, your embrace, 
was the only thing lacking to complete my happiness.' 

nisi — exegero, * if I do not exact all the joys of your comrade- 
ship, of which I have been deprived during these past months.' 
restitutione : cf. note on Academia, II. 2. 

3. in nostro statu, * in connection with my political position.' 
quod : sc. id, referring to splendoretn . . . auctoritatem . . . gratiam. 
viros bonos: cf. note on bonis, IX. i. 

consecuti sumus, * I have recovered.' 

quae — ignoras, ' and you know how,' etc. — Atticus had acted 
as Cicero's banker during the period of banishment. 

facultatum : cf. note on tui, XXVIII. — Translate, * your bank 
account.' 



124 CICERO^S LETTERS 

4. potissimum . . . velle, * will like best.' — For the comparison of 
potissimumy see note on minus , XVII. i. 

ipso — nobis: cf. introductory note to this letter. 

mihi : dative with fuit praestOy which = occurrity or the like. 

qui casu — Salutis: cf. note on diemque natalemy XXII. i. — 
The colony of Brundisium was established in 244. 

casu: freely, * as it happened.' In this sense forte is more fre- 
quently found. 

Salutis, * the temple of Salus.' — The Romans were very fond of 
deifying abstract virtues. There were temples in Rome to Virtus, 
PaXy Concordia, and others, in addition to the one mentioned here 
by Cicero. 

gratulatione : cf . note on dignitate, X. i . 

omnium — ordinum, *of men of all ages and ranks.* — Any citizen 
might vote in the comitia centuriata, but the division into centuries 
was so arranged as to give the wealthy class the greatest power. 
The system of voting was similar to our own in presidential elections. 
The individual citizen voted lipon the manner in which his cen- 
tury's vote should be cast, and thus the majority in a century 
represented the whole century. 

concursu Italiae : the senate seems to have sent a special invitation 
to all the people in the outlying districts, who were known to be 
favorable to Cicero, to come and take part in the voting. 

comitiis : ablative of time when or within which. 

omatus, * duly honored.' — Decretis appears immediately before 
ornatus in the Teubner text. I follow Abbott and others in deleting 
it. 

iter . . . feci : sc. Romam. 

undique : i.e., from all the towns along the route. 

6. Ad urbem — ut nemo, *when I came into the city, there was 
no one.' 

nomenclatori : a slave who walked at his master's left side and 
informed him of the name and rank of every man who came to 
greet him. 

mihi : dative with ohviam . . . venerit (see A. 370. c). 

quibus . . . dissimulate . . . negare : cf . note on mihi . . . uti, 
XXII. I. 

id ipsum, ' the fact that.' 

liceret : subjunctive in a relative clause of characteristic. See also 
note on sit, LV. 2. 

portam Capenam : the porta Capena was the gate through which 
the Appian Way entered the city. 



NOTES 125 

ab infimo, * from top to bottom.' 

Capitolium: the Capitoline Hill, which was crowned with the 
temple of Jupiter (sometimes called Capitolium). 

celebravit, * attended ' (lit., * crowded '). 

foroque : the forum lay at the foot of the Capitoline and Palatine 
Hills. 

Nonarum: see G. 361. i; A. 343. d; B. 202. 

6. Eg biduo, ' in the course of the next two days.* 

annonae summa caritas, * the price of grain was very high.* 

theatrum : a temporary theater, where the ludi Romani were in 
progress (cf. notes on theatro and ludis ApoUinaribus^ X. 3). 

mea opera, * my fault.* Clodius had clearly not yet given up the 
fight. Laying his plans with consummate skill, he utilized " the 
fickle Roman mob ** to strike one more blow at his enemy. 

et — vocaretur, * and Pompey was called upon to assume the 
managemefnt of the situation, not only by popular acclaim, but by 
the conservatives, as well.' — That the boni were enthusiastic over 
this proposed grant of extraordinary power to Pompey may very 
well be doubted. 

nominatim, * personally.* 

ut id decemerem, * that I should support the proposition.* 

accurate, * in a carefully-worded speech * (Shuckburgh). — By 
the shrewdness of Clodius, Cicero was placed in a very embarrassing 
position. If he advocated the proposal, he would likely offend the 
conservatives, who already regarded the Triumvirate with no little 
suspicion; if he opposed it, he would lose favor immediately with 
the common people. 

consulares, * ex-consuls.* 

sententiam dicere, ^ express their opinions.* 

Messallam et Afranium : Messalla and Afranius had been consuls 
in 61 and 60, respectively. 

in, * in accordance with.* 

ut — ageretur, * that Pompey should be urged.* — For the mood of 
ageretur and the two subjunctives which follow, see note on sis, III. 2. 

lexque ferretur, ' and that a law (meeting the situation) should be 
passed.' 

more — novo, * according to this silly new custom.* 

meo nomine recitando, ' as my name was read out (as one of those 
responsible for the measure).' — " Here, as frequently in Livy . . . 
and occasionally in Tacitus, the ablative of the gerundive takes the 
place of the missing pres. part, pass." (Abbott). 

praetorem, * judge.' — After 241 there were two praetors, one 



126 CICERO'S LETTERS 

called praetor urhanuSy who had jurisdiction over cases in which 
citizens were concerned ; the other, the praetor peregrinus, handled 
suits which involved foreigners. Civil actions, up to the time of 
Sulla, were usually referred by the praetor to a judge or jury, with 
instructions concerning the law; criminal cases were conducted by 
the comitia centuriata or by a special court (quaestio extraordinaria) 
to which the comitia delegated its powers. The latter method proved 
so successful that after 149 a permanent court (quaestio ordinaria) 
was established, in which cases of extortion were tried. Other such 
courts, each presided over by a praetor and having jurisdiction in 
particular kinds of cases, were soon instituted. 

dedenint : sc. contionem, i.e., " granted me the right to address 
the assembled populace." 

7. ad omnia — dixit, 'declared that I should be his second self 
in all things.' 

rei fnunentariae : cf . note on delectationis, I. 

daretur: see G. 630; A. 531. 2; B. 282. 2. 

alteram: sc. legem (conscripsit). 

Messius : one of the tribunes, and a staunch supporter of Pompey. 

qui eas obtineant : i.e., the proconsuls and other officials. 

non ferenda: any bill which conferred upon a member of the 
Triumvirate such powers was extremely distasteful to the conserva- 
tive wing, and was clearly so even to Cicero, Pompey*s friend. 

Pompeius — hanc, 'Pompey insists that he prefers the former, 
but his friends say he really wants the latter passed.* Messius' bill 
would have bestowed on Pompey well-nigh supreme power. 

Favonio : called " Cato's ape," because of his great admiration 
for, and sedulous imitation of, the conduct and character of Cato 
Uticensis (see note on Cato, LIII. 2). Favonius was quaestor at 
this time, and was a man of considerable ability. He was killed 
in 42, by order of Octavianus, the future emperor. — The quaestors, 
of whom there were twenty at this period, were intrusted with the 
finances of the republic. They managed the state accounts, col- 
lected fines and taxes, made disbursements to officials, etc. The 
majority of the quaestors were distributed through the provinces 
(see note on Plancius, XXIV. i). 

eo : cf. note on dolore, X. 5. 

quod — responderunt : cf. note on hoc — area, XXIII. 3. Clodius 
dedicated to Liberty the plot upon which Cicero's residence had 
stood, and had already begun to erect a temple there. Since the 
ground had been consecrated, the decision concerning its future 
disposition rested with the pontifices. 



NOTES 127 

si — religionem, *if they declare the consecration illegal' (lit., 
* remove the consecration ' ; sustulerint is from tollo). In this event, 
Cicero would receive his lot again with the privilege of rebuilding 
his home, and would be indemnified for the loss he had sustained 
{super ficiem — aestimahunt) . 

demolientur : sc. opera Clodi. 

suo nomine locabunt, * they will make a contract (for a new temple) 
under their own auspices.* 

rem totam : the value of the original residence, plus the site. The 
pontifices took the view expressed above in si — religionem, and, 
after a long wrangle in the senate (see Ad Alt. 4. 2. 2-5), the matter 
was finally settled and the value of the property duly fixed. 

8. * Ut — bonae ' : the source of this iambic verse is not known. 
Render, * though prosperous, in disorder; though in the midst of 
adversity, good.* Shuckburgh cleverly translates by the following 
line from Milton's Paradise Lost (2. 224) : " For happy though but 
ill, for ill not worst." 

re familiari, * financially.' 

quaedam domestica, ^certain family matters.' This is the first 
hint of the domestic discord which, in 46, resulted in Cicero's divorce 
of Terentia. The trouble at this time seems to have followed close 
upon Cicero's discovery of the rather careless manner in which his 
wife and her steward, Philotimus, had managed his property during 
his exile. 

eoque animo — sinas, * and that you come so minded as not to per- 
mit me to want for your counsel.' — Animo is ablative of manner. 
— For the case of consilio, cf. note on molestia^ XII. 2. 

quidam, * certain men,' i.e.y the conservatives, who were displeased 
at the stand Cicero took concerning the grant of extraordinary 
power to Pompey (see above, 6). 

XXX. Ad Familiares 7. 26. Tusculum, December (?) 57. 

I follow Tyrrell in assigning this letter to 5 7 instead of to 46. The 
reference to the banquet in the house of Lentulus (2, below) fur- 
nishes the reason for Tyrrell's view. 

Gallo: M. Fadius Callus, to whom this letter is addressed, was a 
member of the circle of Cicero's purely personal friends, in whom, 
when the cares of public life were laid aside, he found so much genuine 
pleasure. — Fadius was in Rome at this time. — For Tusculum, see 
note on signa Megarica^ II. 2. 

1. decumum : for decimum. 

diem: see G. 336; A. 423. 2; B. 181. 



128 CICERO'S LETTERS 

qui — volebant, * who sought my services.' 

ita ieiunus fuissem, ^ I had fasted so absolutely.' 

meum : sc. officium. 

cum . . . turn: see note on cum . . . /wm, XVII. i. 

turn — molesta esse, 'but I stand in peculiar dread of that con- 
cerning which the Stoics attack your dear Epicurus, because he 
declares that strangury and dysentery are a source of much trouble 
to him.* 

Epicurum: Epicurus (342-270) was the founder of the system of 
philosophy which bears his name. He taught that happiness, or, 
rather, that peace of mind which is the culmination of all virtues, 
was the supreme good. Virtue, therefore, was not sought as an end, 
but as a means to the attainment of happiness. The Stoics, on the 
other hand, taught that virtue was the end, the summum bonum, 
and should therefore be striven after for its own sake. The Epi- 
curean system was brought into much disrepute in later times, 
because men calling themselves Epicureans perverted the master's 
teachings and lived lives of mere sensual indulgence, which they 
called happiness. 

Stoici : the Stoic school, founded by Zeno (about 300), was 
perhaps the most influential of all the ancient philosophical sects. 
Virtue was the chief good, according to the Stoic teachers, and he 
who was the perfect embodiment of virtue was a wise man — a 
fit companion for the gods — endowed with all graces. The Stoics 
believed that the " wise man " should take an active interest in 
affairs of state. The Epicureans, on the other hand, avoided public 
service, since it would likely be incompatible with that serenity of 
spirit so essential to true happiness. 

alterum . . . alterum, * the latter ' . . . * the former.' 

edacitatis : cf. note on humanUatis, XX. 2. 

etiam : to be taken with turpiorisj in the sense of * even.' 

vel . . . vel . . . vel: the tone is "shall I say . . . or . . . or." 
Cf . note on T'e/ . . .velyX^.i. 

vel ipsa — remissio, *or perhaps the cessation of the trouble, 
which has now run its course.' 

2. quo modove commiserim, * or how I brought this disease upon 
myself.' 

lex sumptuaria, * the sumptuary law ' {lex Aemilia, passed in 115). 
Such laws were made necessary in Rome from time to time by the 
extravagant expenditure of money for banquets. 

quae — attulisse, ' supposed to have introduced plain living ' 
(Shuckburgh). 



NOTES 129 

mihi fraudi : cf. note on nobis curaesty I. 

isti lauti, * those (confounded) epicures.' 

terra: see G. 3^5; A. 403; B. 215. 

fungos, helvellas, * mushrooms, potherbs.* 

suavius, * more delightful.' 

cena — Lentulum, 'at the augural feast in Lentulus* house.' The 
son of Lentulus (cf. note on Lentulus^ XXIV. 2) had just been made 
augur, and his father was celebrating with a dinner. Augural and 
pontifical feasts were notoriously sumptuous. — The augurs (fifteen 
in number) were intrusted with the due observance of auspices. 

Sidppoia, ' diarrhoea.' 

ostreis et murenis, * oysters and lampreys,' — considered great 
delicacies by the Romans. 

a beta et a malva : " the prep, shows there is a humorous person- 
ification, ' entrapped by Mr. Beet and Mr. Mallow ' " (Tyrrell). 

audisses : i.e.y " that I was sick." 

Anicio : C. Anicius, one of Cicero's friends. 

nauseantem, ' as I was getting sick.' 

mittendi : i.e.y " to ask about me." 

quoad . . . reficiam : cf . note on quoad . . . scriberesy XIX. i . 

ilia: see G. 286. i; A. 287. 3; B. 235. B. 2. b. /3. 

XXXI. Ad Atticum 4. 4a. Rome, January 28, 56. 

Cincius : cf . note on L. Cincioy I. 

ante lucem, * even though he called before daylight.' 

te — Italia : Atticus was returning to Rome from his villa in 
Epirus (cf. notes on ad te and tuo portu, XXI. i). 

pueros, * slaves.' — The word puer was, in early days, a part of 
every slave's name ; for example, Marcipor = Marci puety * the slave 
of Marcus.' 

haberem : cf. note on non quo facer el y XII. i. 

ames . . . scias: purpose or result? 

utique, * without fail.' 

ctim tuis, * and your household.' — Cf. the Roman comedies, in 
which it is good form to invite to dinner the returned traveler, for 
the day of his return. 

apud me ens, * you shall be my guests.' 

XXXII. Ad Atticum 4. 4b. Antium, April (?), 56. 

1. si — veneris : Cicero was now in his villa at Antium (cf . note 
on Antiy VI. 2). 

Offendes, * you will behold.' 



130 CICERO'S LETTERS 

designationem : observe that there are two genitives with this 
word, one, possessive (Tyrannionis)^ the other, objective {libro- 
rum). 

Tjrrannionis : Tyrannio was a Greek grammarian who was cajj- 
tured by LucuUus (cf. note on te, IV. i) in 72 and brought to Rome. 
He spent his time there in teaching, as so many Greeks did, and 
in doing library work of the sort hinted at here. 

librariolis, * employes of your establishment.' Atticus, in addition 
to his other activities, conducted a publishing business (cf. note on 
-4 Wico, I, greeting), and enjoyed a reputation for care in the selection 
and copying of good manuscripts. 

duos aliquos, * two or three ' ; indefinite. 

utatur : cf. note on daretur^ XXIX. 7. 

glutinatoribus, * gluers.* — The papyrus strips (of which most 
books of this period were made) were glued together and rolled up 
around a stick, umbilicus. Such a book was called volumen. The 
later type, which has come down to us, was called codex. Codices ^ 
in which parchment was usually employed, came into general use 
in the fourth century of our era. 

ad cetera administris : note the omission of et. See G. 473, 
remark; A. 323. b; B. 346. 

iisque : cf. note on m, X. i. 

membranulum, ' some small pieces of parchment.' 

indices: to the upper end of the umbilicus (see above) the title 
of the book was attached, written on a bit of parchment or papyrus. 

o-kXXvpovs: the Greek word corresponding to indices or tituli. 

2. haec : sc. velim agas. 

Ipse — venias, *but see to it that you yourself come without fail.' 

fac venias : see G. 271 ; A. 565 ; B. 295. 5 and 8. 

his locis adhaerescere, * stick in such a place as this.' . Cicero 
evidently feared that such a cosmopolite as Atticus would find 
country life a bit dull. 

Piliam: Pilia was Atticus' wife. The wedding, which Cicero 
attended, took place in February. 

medius fidius : i.e., me deus fidius (sc. adiuvet), * heaven help me.' 

ne : not the negative particle. Translate, * surely.' 

ludum, * troop,' i.e., of gladiators. The purchase and training of 
bands of gladiators was a favorite pastime with wealthy Romans, 
who also made no little profit by renting or selling the fighters to the 
aediles and others for exhibitions. 

pugnare : i.e., in the ludus gladiatorius, or * training-camp.' 

locare, * rent.' 



NOTES 13 J 

duobus — liberasses, *you would have come out ahead on the 
two shows held recently.* — With liberasses , supply te. 

muneribus : games (usually gladiatorial displays) given by private 
individuals at their own expense, as opposed to ludi, games under 
aedilician supervision. — Muneribus is instrumental ablative. 

Sed haec posterius, * but more of this later.* 

librariis: cf. note on librariolis^ i. 

diligenter : sc. cur a or agas. 

XXXIII. Ad Atticum 4. 5. Antium, April or May, 56. 

1. Ain tu, * really ! ' — ^4 in is a condensation of aisne. 
mea, * my writings.' 

Cur — prius, 'why, then, did 'I send them to some one else first?' 

exemplar : i.e., " I didn't have another copy to send to you." 

subturpicula : see note on subinvideo tibij XLIII. i. 

'iraXiv<p8£a, * recantation.' Although Cicero duly recognized the 
value of Pompey's influence in securing his recall and spoke in favor 
of the grant of extra power (cf. XXIX. 6-7), yet his real sympathies 
lay on the side of the conservatives. In April, before this letter was 
written, he had proposed that the senate make Caesar's agrarian 
law of 59 (cf. note on Campana lex, IX. 2) a special order for May 15. 
Shortly after this, Pompey went to Sardinia, and, in a conversation 
with Quintus Cicero (who was superintending the grain supply 
in the island), complained of the active opposition of the returned 
exile, and demanded, for the sake of past favors and a promise 
Quintus had made, that this opposition should cease (see Ad Fam. 
I. 9. 9). The result was Cicero's palinode, sent probably to Pompey, 
in which he professed absolute allegiance to the triumvirs (Momm- 
sen maintains that the oration De Provinciis Consularibus is the 
ira\iv(fidia). We can hardly wonder that Cicero regarded this com- 
plete volte-face as subturpicula. 

valeant: see G. 260; A. 441; B. 279. 

prindpibus : the triumvirs. 

ut essent, * as they would be.* 

inductus : sc, probably, esse. 

re publica, * political matters.' 

resipui : from resipisco; render, * I have come to my senses.' 

2. monuisse, suasisse : Atticus had probably advised Cicero that 
the safest course for him to pursue would be to align himself with 
the triumvirs. 

quae — scriberem, * what I was to do, not to write, too.' 

Ego — coniunctioiiis, * well, confound it ! I wanted to make this 



132 CICERO^S LETTERS 

new union of mine binding* (t.c., by declaring his allegiance in 
writing). 

qua : adverb, — * in any way.* 

illos — invidere : the conservatives, many of whom, ever since 
Cicero had been a leader among them, had exhibited unmistakable 
signs of jealousy (cf. note on tuos — fore. III. 2). 

viroMo-ci, * my exposition of the matter.* 

ut scripsi, * when I did put pen to paper * (Shuckburgh). 

Erimus uberiores, * I shall express myself more fully.* 

ille : the triumvir to whom Cicero sent his recantation. 

subringentur : sc. si. Render, * if those make wry faces.* 

quae Catuli fuerat, * which once belonged to'Catulus,* — Q. Luta- 
tius Catulus (one of the conquerors of the Cimbri, in loi, and a 
staunch aristocrat). There were many, therefore, who would look 
upon Cicero's ownership of the house as an outrage, since he had gone 
over to the triumvirs. 

Vettio : Vettius was a Roman knight who had assisted Cicero dur- 
ing the days of the Catilinarian conspiracy. — With a Vettio , sc. sed, 

cogitant, * stop to think.* 

oportuisse . . . aedificare : for the tenses, see G. 280. b, and 423 ; 
A. 486. a; B. 270. 2. 

vendere : i.e.j his town lot, on which Clodius planned to set 
up the temple of Liberty (see note on quod — responderunty XXIX. 7). 

Sed — dixisse, *that however is nothing compared with their un- 
holy joy, when the very speeches I delivered in support of their views 
were alienating me from Pompey * ( Wins ted t). For example, in the 
matter of the reconsideration of Caesar*s agrarian law (see note on 
iraXty(^d/a, i). 

ad hoc, * in comparison with this.* 

quibus — probarent, *by those very views through which I set 
forth what they themselves approved of.' — Observe that sententiis 
stands in the relative clause (see G.6i6;A. 307.b;B. 251. 4). — With 
quodj supply id. — Probarent is subjunctive because of the implied 
indirect discourse, — " what — so they said — they approved of.*' 

qui nihil possunt, * who have no power,* that is, the senatorial 
element. 

3. Vellem iam pridem : sc. haec fecissesy and cf . note on cuperenty 
IX. 4. — Cicero would very probably have escaped banishment, had 
he placed himself definitely on the side of the triumvirs in 60 or 59 
(see note on libera legatio^ IX. 3). 

illis : the conservatives, who, of course, now looked upon Cicero 
as a deserter. 



NOTES 133 

Domum meam: Cicero*s town house was being rebuilt, and 
Atticus, who was in Rome, was apparently exercising a general 
superintendence over it. 

Viaticum Crassipes praeripit, * Crassipes is swallowing up (all the 
money I wanted to use for) traveling expenses.' Tullia, whose first 
husband, Piso, died in 57, had been betrothed to P. Furius Crassipes, 
and her dowry and the expenses incidental to preparations for the 
wedding were proving a severe strain on Cicero's pocket. 

Tullia — hortos, * Tullia will go straight to your suburban villa' 
(Shuckburgh). This passage is rather obscure and has received 
various interpretations and emendations. The meaning probably 
is, that Tullia is about to accept an invitation to visit Atticus and 
Pilia on her way to the city. 

Ad te, * your town house.' — Tullia will spend only one day in the 
country. — Supply with this clause, erit. 

tua : sc. interest. — For the case, see note on nostra, XI. 3. 

tui, * your slaves.' See XXXII. i. 

constructione, * by binding my books.' 

sillybis: cf. note on indices ^ XXXII. i. 

laudes, * thank.' 

XXXIV. Ad Atticum 4. 8. Antium, April or May, 56. 

1. patina tyrotarichi, * your dish of salt herrings and cheese.* 
Atticus had apparently suffered some financial loss, and had written 
to Cicero that he was living on the cheapest food he could buy. 

raudusculo, 'that small debt.' 

'l&^irca — t8||s,' * don't boast till you see a man dead.' Winstedt 
translates, " don't holloa till you are out of the wood." The line 
comes from a lost play of Sophocles, the great Greek tragic poet 
(495-406). 

Aedificati : aedis or domus would usually be found. 

in agris, * out in the country.' Atticus seems to have commis- 
sioned Cicero to select a house for him. 

In oppido : i.e., in Antiimi. 

sitne : see G. 454 and 460; A. 574 (second example); B. 300. i. b. 
The direct form would, of course, be estne. 

aedibus : cf. note on honori, III. 2. — Translate, * my establishment ' 
(in connection with which there were probably several buildings). 

Buthrotum esse Romae, * the Buthrotum of Rome.' 

ut — tuum, * just as your own estate is the Buthrotum of Corcyra' 
(a city on the island of Corcyra, now called Corfu, off the coast of 
Epirus). 



134 CICERO^S LETTERS 

* EItj — oIkos/ * let this be my dear home.* 

2. Tyrannio: cf. note on TyrannioniSy XXXII. i. 

mens, * soul.' 

Dionysi et Menophili: the two slaves referred to in XXXII. i 
and 2. 

pegmata, * bookcases.' 

mi: for the form, see G. loo; A. 143; B. 84.1. — For the case, cf. 
note on ecce tibi^ VI. i. 

dillybis: cf. note on indices, XXXII. i. 

gladiatoribus : see note on ludutn, XXXII. 2. 

rem genmt, * are doing.' 

XXXV. Ad Familiares 7. 23. Rome, May, 55. 

Cicero -^ Gallo : cf. note on Gado, XXX, greeting. 

1. Tantum — veneram, * I had just come from my villa at Arpi- 
num.' This particular villa was the home of his boyhood, which 
he had been at some pains to remodel to his liking. — Tantum 
quod, in the sense of * just,' is a colloquialism; see G. 525. 2, note 2. 

ab eodemque : sc. nuntio or tahellario. — Note the position of 
-que. This is common where the preposition is monosyllabic. 

Aviani : Avianius was a dealer in statuary, from whom Fadius 
made the purchases for Cicero. See note on signa Megarica, II. 2. 

nomina se facturum, * that he would enter the debt against me ' 
(upon which entry, interest would begin to accumulate). — Nomen, 
in a transferred sense, means * accusation ' ; hence, * claim * or * debt,* 
and in the plural, * the items of a debt ' (see Lexicon, under nomen). 

ctmi venisset : sc. Rotnam. 

qua — die : Avianius was a very generous creditor. — For the 
gender of die, see G. 64; A. 97. a; B. 53. 

Fac — esse te, * put yourself in my place ' (Tyrrell). 

pudoris : cf. note on humanitatis, XX. 2. 

rogare de die : sc. solutionis, i.e., * to ask for time.' . 

plus amiua : sc. die, lit., * a day which lasts more than a year.' 
The meaning is, " we both ought to be ashamed to ask for any time 
at all for the payment of this debt, and to ask for a whole year and 
more is particularly disgraceful." — For the case of annua (die), 
cf. note on re publica . . . iis, XII. 2. 

ad eam summam : Cicero's financial condition was still causing 
him anxiety. See notes on quaedam domestica, XXIX. 8, and viati- 
cum Crassipes praeripit, XXXIII. 3. 

rata: from reor. Render, 'ratified.' — This form is interesting 
because it is an example of a deponent perfect participle in a passive 



NOTES 135 

sense. — Tyrrell regards rata . . . grata as a sort of play on words, 
and translates, * not only do I ratify your purchase, but I am gratified 
to do so.' 

usum : participle. 

delectaiint : why subjunctive ? 

elegantissimum, * exceedingly careful.* 

me : cf. note on Academia, II. 2. 

2. Damasippus : an art collector who had signified a willingness 
to relieve Cicero of the statues, in case they failed to prove satisfac- 
tory to him. 

istis, * those of yours,' — the true meaning (cf. ista, below). 

instituti, * my usual practice.' 

quanti . . . tanti : for the case, see G. 382; A. 417; B. 203. 3-4. 

gentis — omnium, * the whole race of statues.' 

Bacchas, * Maenads ' (priestesses of Bacchus) . 

Musis Metelli : Metellus was the owner, not the sculptor. — 
One of the strangest things about Roman art is that the names of 
the masters are unknown to-day. 

tanti, * worth as much (as you paid for the * Bacchae').' 

id fecissem, * I should have reached that conclusion.' 

erat, * would be.' See G. 597, remark 3 ; A. 517. b ; B. 304. 3. a. 
Wc have here the apodosis of a contrary to fact condition, with the 
protasis implied. The sense is, " if we were only able to get Metellus* 
group of the Muses, it would be," etc. — With aptum and congruenSy 
supply signum. 

Bacchis — locus: Cicero was a man of excellent taste; he pos- 
sessed, too, a highly developed sense of the fitness of things, which 
extended beyond matters artistic. — For the case of Bacchis^ cf. 
note on mihiy XVI. 

At pulcliellae stmt: to be understood as a gentle remonstrance 
from Fadius, * but, you will say to me,' etc. 

g3rmnasiorum : cf. note on yvfiva<n<Ji>drjy II. 2. 

palaestra : the word probably refers here to the building called, 
in II. 2, Academia, — a building appropriated chiefly to mental 
exercise, but perhaps containing space for bodily training, as well. 

Martis — auctori, * for what possible reason should I, the author 
of peace, possess a statue of Mars? ' — Quo is ablative of cause. — 
The reference in pads auctori is to the settlement of the Catilinarian 
turmoil. 

putarem : apodosis of a condition whose protasis is implied. 

aes alienimi attulisse : Mars and Saturn were considered by the 
astrologers unlucky stars. 



136 CICERO'S LETTERS 

Mercuri : the god of trade, and therefore likely to prosper a 
home in which his image stood. 
mallem — fuisset: cf. note on cuperem, IX. 4. 
aliquod : sc. signum. 
felicius . . . transigere, * to drive a better bargain.* 

3. Quod : cf. note on quody XVII. 5. 

trapezophorum : properly, * the carved support of a table * ; here, 
' the table.' 

si . . . sin : cf . note on si . . . sin^ III. r. 

ne : not the nega,tive particle. 

deversorium, * a (private) lodging-house.' — In ancient times, 
rural hotel accommodations were so poor that men who could afiford 
the expense put up buildings of this kind along their usual routes 
from the city. 

Tarradnae : a coast town, about sixty miles south of Rome. 

hospiti : i.e.y * the landlord.' 

certas, * specific* 

Ezhedria, * sitting-rooms.* 

tabellis, * paintings.' Wall paintings found in Rome, Pompeii, 
Herculaneum, and elsewhere, show that the painters there employed 
attained great skill in this province of art. 

si — habenda, * if I must keep them.' Gf. habebis and hahebo, 
above. 

ista : sc. signa. 

Pseudodamasippum : i.e., another collector who would be willing 
to buy the statues. 

4. Quod : cf. note on quod, above, 3. 

de domo : Fadius had expressed a desire to secure a house near 
Cicero's in Rome, and it is possible that he had already bought or 
rented one. 

Tulliae : it is significant that Cicero intrusted the matter to his 
daughter rather than to Terentia (cf. note on quaedam domestica. 
XXIX. 8). 

tuo, * your friend.' 

Nicia : for the form, see G. 65 ; A. 44; B. 22. 

utitur — Cassio, *on intimate terms, as you know, with Cassius ' 
(the owner or tenant of the house which Fadius hoped soon to 
occupy). 

Ut redii : i.e., from Arpinum (see note on lanlum — vencram, i). 

Liciniam : Cassius' sister, who was occupying the house at this 
time. 

uti — sorore : cf. note on utitur — Cassio, above. 



NOTES 137 

migrare, * vacate.* 

tanti : cf. note on quanti . . . tantij above, 2. 

consuetudinem — nostri, * intimacy with me in all the ways of 
my life.' VUae and victus are frequently used together thus. Strictly 
speaking, vita = * life,* while victus = * that which sustains life.* 

deinde, * secondly.* 

ne yivam, si, * may I be-hanged if.* 

ut . . . sis : an infinitive is possible here, with concedo as the verb 
of saying. As it stands, the clause is one of result. 

utriusque : for the case, see G. 381 ; A. 355; B. 211. 

egero, * accomplish * (that is, with reference to the matter alluded 
to in de domOj above). 

rescribes : cf. note on silehisy IX. 3. 

XXXVI. Ad Familiares 7. i. Rome, October, 55. 

Mario : " the person to whom this letter is addressed, seems to 
have been of a temper and constitution, that placed him far below 
the ambition of being known to posterity. But a private letter from 
Cicero*s hand has been sufficient to dispel the obscurity he appears 
to have loved, and to render his retirement conspicuous ** (Melmoth, 
— Cicero*s ** Offices" Essays, and Select Letters, Everyman's Library). 

1. Si — tenuit : Marius was suffering with gout in his villa at 
Stabiae (about ten miles south of Naples). 

ludos : the games with which Pompey's new theater in the Campus 
Martins was opened (cf. note on theatro, X. 3). There were athletic 
and dramatic performances, and also venationes, sl degraded form 
of so-called sport, in which wild beasts were slaughtered by the tens 
and hundreds. The seating capacity of the building has been va- 
riously estimated, but there was certainly room for more than fifteen 
thousand spectators (17,500 is the most recent estimate). Pompey 
overcame whatever prejudice still existed against a permanent 
theater by constructing a temple to Venus Victrix, entrance to which 
was gained through the theater itself. 

contemnenda duxisti, * you deemed unworthy of your notice.* 

cum — posses, * although, so far as your health was concerned, 
you might.* — For the mood of posses, cf. note on sim adfliclus, 
XVIII. I. 

quae — alii: spectacles which involved the shedding of blood 
never failed to delight the Roman mob. But cf. note on miser i- 
cordia, 3. 

mode — oti tui, 'only let the delight you find in leisure be of some 
real profit to you.* — In w^ . . . constiterit (from consto) we have a 



138 CICERO'S LETTERS 

survival of an early Latin usage, i.e.j of ut, in the sense of utinam, 
introducing clauses of wishing. See G. 281 ; A. 442. a. 

cum esses — relictus: the region around Stabiae was dotted with 
country homes, but most of their occupants were attending the 
games. 

ex quo — sinum, * from which you have opened up a vista to the 
bay * (lit., * you have bored through your Stabian estate and dis- 
closed the bay *). 

lectiunculis, * light reading ' (Shuckburgh). 

communis, ' sorry,' or, * vulgar.' 

mimos : the mime was of Greek origin and was introduced into 
Rome from Tarentum, one of the cities of Magna Graecia, in the 
third century. There was a slender plot with stock characters, and 
much dancing and gesticulation. Indeed, as Abbott points out, the 
mime " was at the outset a character presentation by dancers." 
Women were allowed to enact the female parts, and this innovation 
was at least partly responsible for the great immorality and generally 
low tone which distinguished these farces. During the empire they 
practically swept the legitimate drama from the stage. Eventually, 
however, gestures, which had grown more and more prominent, sup- 
planted entirely spoken parts, and the pantomime came into being. 

semisomni, * half asleep,' — either because of the inanity of the 
plays, or because the majority of the audience were compelled to 
start to the theater very early in order to secure good seats (cf . note 
on Rosciae legij X. 3). 

Sp. Maecius : a critic whom Pompey employed to choose and 
supervise the plays to be presented at the opening of his theater. 

probavisset : cf. note on qui Romam proficiscantur, II. i. 

2. apparatissimi, ' quite gorgeous.' 

stomachi : genitive of quality. Render, * to your liking.' 

meo : sc. stomacho. 

honoris causa . . . honoris causa, * out of respect for Pompeius 
they came back to the stage which they had left out of respect for 
themselves ' (Tyrrell). 

Aesopus : cf. note on tragoedtis, X. 3. Aesopus was now old and 
feeble. Cicero owed him a great debt of gratitude, for we learn 
that during his banishment Aesopus acted so fervently certain 
scenes which suggested the orator's predicament that the audience 
was deeply affected. Furthermore, Cicero, in his young manhood, 
had been instructed by Aesopus in the art of public speaking. 

iurare, * the oath.' 

* Si — fallo,' * if I deceive wittingly.' The exact source of these 



NOTES 139 

words is not known, but they are certainly from one of the old Latin 
plays. Abbott, following Ribbeck, suggests that Aesopus was 
enacting the part of Sinon in the Equus Troianus of Andronicus 
(circ. 284-204) or Naevius (circ. 270-199), and that this oath occurred 
in a speech such as Vergil gives to Sinon in Aeneid 2. 154 fiE. 

narrem : cf. note on quid . . . invitem^ VIII. 2. 

nosti, * you are well acquainted with.' 

mediocres ludi : cf. note on ludis Apollinaribus, X. 3. 

Apparatus : genitive. Render, * of the extravagant setting.' 
The inference is that emphasis was laid upon scenic magnificence, 
to the complete subordination of excellence in acting. 

* Clytaemestra ' : a play by Accius (see note on Tereo Accij 
LXIX. i), dealing with the scenes attendant upon Agamemnon's 
return from Troy with Cassandra, the Trojan prophetess. 

* Equo Troiano ' : cf. note on si — folio j above. 
creterrarum : the usual form would be craterarum. 
aliqua pugna, * some battle or other.' 
attulissent : sc. si ea vidisses. 

3. Protogeni : the slave who read aloud to Marius. 

dum mode . . . legerit: see G. 573; A. 528; B. 310. II. 

ne, * surely.' — As usual, we have a pronoun with this ne. Cf . 
also ne egOy XXXV. 3. 

haud paulo plus, * much more ' (lit., * more by not a little '). 

Graecos — ludos : by * Greek plays,' Cicero means dramatic 
works of the early Latin tragic and comic poets, who followed Greek 
models very closely. — The ' Oscan farces ' (fabulae Atellanae) were 
of Italian origin, having come to Rome, tradition said, from the 
Campanian town, Atella. Novius {floruit 100) and Pomponius 
{floruit 89) developed this uncouth form of drama so successfully 
that in Cicero's time Atellan plays were frequently performed at 
Rome. 

senatu vestro : the municipal body of Marius' town, the delibera- 
tions of which, Cicero implies, would be as amusing as any farce that 
was ever written. 

via Graeca : one of the roads by which Marius could reach his 
villa was called * the Greek road,' and may have been in indifferent 
condition at this time. Cicero jestingly remarks that Marius' 
hatred of the Greeks is so thorough that he even declines to travel 
by a road bearing the accursed name. 

athletas : a Greek word. — Wrestling, boxing, discus-throwing, 
and other Greek sports were held in very little favor at Rome. 

contempseris : cf. note on fugerem, XXI. i. 



I40 CICERO^S LETTERS 

in quibus : i.e., ** in arranging for the athletic events " (see note 
on aihletaSf above). 

operam et oleum : a proverbial expression. 

venationes : cf. note on ludos, i. 

binae, * two a day.' 

homini . . . polite, * a man of fine sensibilities.' 

praeclara — transverberatur : Pliny the Elder (23-79 a.d.) informs 
us that five hundred lions and twenty elephants were slaughtered 
during Pompey's games. 

quin etiam, * nay, even.' 

misericordia : a Roman mob in tears was an extraordinary sight. 
Pliny remarks (Natural History 8. 21) : "The whole crowd, forgetful 
of Pompey and the magnificent spectacles set forth for their enjoy- 
ment, arose weeping, and hurled dreadful curses at him." — Tyrrell 
naively remarks : " We could hardly believe any mob could be so 
silly, if we did not remember the ridiculous sentiment evoked not 
long ago by the elephant Jumbo among the lower classes in London." 

societatem, * kinship.* Many men in ancient times believed that 
the elephant was, of all beasts, most closely related to man. 

4. in — Canini : the business of the law courts was not interrupted 
by the games. Caninius Gallus (in colloquial Latin the nomen 
frequently follows the cognomen) was being tried on a charge trumped 
up by Pompey's enemies. Cicero defended him at Pompey's re- 
quest ; his speech is lost. 

Quodsi — habuit : the meaning is, " if my clients and the public at 
large would permit me to retire as readily as the audience permitted 
Aesopus the other day," etc. (cf . notes on honoris causa . . . honoris 
causa and Aesopus, 2 ; see also, in 2, the words ut ei desinerc per otnnis 
homines liceret). 

artem : i.e., his law practice. — The accusative with desino is 
rare in prose. 

nostri : for the case, cf. note on vitae, XVII. i ; see also G. 359, 
remark i and note 4; A. 385. c. 2 ; B. 204. 3. — For the form, see 
G. 304. 2; A. 295. b; B. 242. 2. 

taedebat : sc. artis (see note on consili — te, LV. 2). 

et licebat — defendere, * and I had the privilege, at last, of defend- 
ing whom I chose.' 

vita nullast, * life is not worth living.' The next sentence states 
Cicero's reason for so gloomy a reflection. 

cogor — defendere : since Cicero's abject surrender to the Trium- 
virate (see XXXIII, passim) , he had been forced to defend two of 
his bitterest enemies, Gabinius and Vatinius. 



NOTES 141 

5. rationem oti tui, * your well-ordered leisure.' 

quodque — aequiore, *and I bear with greater equanimity your 
rather infrequent visits to me.* — For quod, cf . note on quod, XXII. 2. 

tamen — liceret, 'still I should not be permitted to enjoy your 
pleasant companionship.* 

nos . . . te . . . frui : cf . note on magistratum . . . auxiliari, 
XXVII. 2. 

qui : commonly used after si^ nisi, num, and ne for aliqui. — Sc, 
lepor. 

meo : sc. lepore. 

Quibus: see G. 390. 2; A. 401; B. 214. 

htimaniter vivere, * to live a life of cultivated enjoyment * (Shuck- 
burgh). 

lecticula : diminutive of lectica, * sedan-chair * or * litter ' (see 
note on quid — fietj XVII. 3). This vehicle was used in going about 
the city and for short journeys. It was covered and curtained, and 
was borne on the shoulders of slaves. 

6. abiindantia : ablative of cause. 

subinvitaras — paeniteret : some editors take these words to mean 
that the whole letteris simply a sort of rhetorical exercise, and that it 
does not, therefore, represent Cicero's true feelings. Such a view 
seems unjust, for it would be hard to find a man, in all Roman 
history, whose aesthetic sensibilities were more highly developed than 
were Cicero *s. 

paeniteret: see G. 545. 2; A. 531. a; B. 282. i. a. 

sin minus, * but if not.' Cf. note on si minus , XXI. 3. 

neque — tuae, * nor will you found upon mere letters of mine any 
hope of enjoyment.' 

delectationis : for the case, cf . note on delectationis, I. 

XXXVII. Ad Quintum Fratrem 2.9. Rome, February, 54. 

1. convicio efflagitarunt, * abusively called for.' 
codicilli : see introduction, section 3. 

Nam — profectus, * for as to what actually occurred on the day 
of your start ' (Shuckburgh). Quintus seems to have left Rome for 
the country a short while before this letter was written. He was 
interested in certain things to be discussed in the senate during his 
absence (see below, 2). 

argumenti, * theme,' * topic' 

quem ad modum, ' just as.' 

halucinari, * digress freely.' 

2. Tenediorum: the inhabitants of the island of Tenedos, oft 



142 CICERO^S LETTERS 

the coast of Troas. They had petitioned the Roman senate for 
self-government, but their request had been denied. 

securi Tenedia, * the ax of Tenes * (first king of the island). He 
made adultery punishable by immediate decapitation; hence, the 
phrase securis Tenedia signifies * speedy and terrible punishment.* 

Bibulum: cf. note on Bibulus, X. 2. 

Calidium : one of Cicero's supporters; he had been praetor in 57. 

Favonium : cf . note on Favonio, XXIX. 7. 

Magnetibus ab Sipylo : the envoys from Magnesia in Lydia (near 
Mt. Sipylus). 

L. Sesti Pansae : L. Sestius Pansa was a collector of taxes (publi- 
canus) in Asia Minor who had made an outrageous demand on the 
Magnetes. Quintus Cicero, as propraetor (see V. i), had success- 
fully resisted him. 

3. neque — deero : an engagement at which some family matter 
was to be discussed. Atticus was Quintus Cicero's brother-in-law 
(see note on sororcj XLV. 3). 

Lucreti poemata : the De Rerutn Natura of T. Lucretius Cams 
(99?-55), one of the greatest of Latin writers. The poem is an ex- 
position of Epicurean philosophy (see notes on Epicurum and Stoicl, 
XXX. i). Some scholars hold that Cicero edited this work (St. Je- 
rome, 335-420 A.D., categorically states that he did) and superintended 
its publication in Atticus' establishment. Duff remarks {Lit. Hist, 
of Rome i p. 277) :**... it was a fitting task for one whose youthful 
translation of Aratus had been freely imitated by Lucretius, and an 
easy task for one whose Epicurean friend Atticus had trained copyists 
at his service." 

ut scribis : Quintus also had evidently read the De Rerutn Natura. 

multis — artis, ' is illuminated by the light of a great genius, and 
yet possesses much art.' Cicero, in this criticism, sets over against 
each other ingenium, which he regarded as the distinguishing char- 
acteristic of the ** old school," and arSy the peculiar possession of the 
*' new school." The poets of the latter school, represented at Rome 
by Catullus (84-54) and others, were deeply impregnated with 
Alexandrinism, that is, the tendency toward erudition and elab- 
orately polished versification (see also note on Calvi Licini, LXIV. i). 
— This passage has been much discussed, and no one view has been 
universally accepted. 

virum . . . hominem, * a real hero ' . . . * an ordinary man.' 

Sallusti Empedoclea: a poem by one Sallustius (about whom 
nothing is known), setting forth the philosophy of Empedocles 
{floruit 444), one of Lucretius' sources of inspiration. 



NOTES 143 

XXXVUI. Ad Familiares 7. 5. Rome, April, 54. 

Cicero — S. D. : Caesar was now in Gaul, preparing for his sec- 
ond invasion of Britain. — Imp, is an abbreviation of Imperatori. 

1. quam, * how (completely).* Quam in this sense is rather un- 
common. 

te — alterum, * you are my second self.* 

C. Trebatium : C. Trebatius Testa was a young lawyer who was 
devoted to Cicero, and who, in later years, was one of Rome's most 
famous jurists. 

quocumque — ducere : it was customary for young Romans to serve 
for a time in the army before entering public life at home. Cicero 
planned to take Trebatius to Spain, whither he intended going as lego- 
tus to Pompey, but the latter decided to remain in Rome. Trebatius 
was therefore sent to Caesar, with this letter of recommendation. 

studiis, beneficiis: note the asyndeton (cf. note on vavroiijs 
dper^s fiifxvi^a-KeOf V. i). 

dubitatio: Cicero was content to remain in Rome. He had 
learned his lesson well in 58, and now preferred not to give Clodius 
any opportunity of stirring up sentiment against him by remaining 
in a far-distant province for a considerable length of time. 

Trebatium exspectare : cf . note on interire, XXV. 

neque — polliceri, * nor, by Hercules, have I made any less 
generous promises to him of your good will than I had been ac- 
customed to make of my own.* 

2. castis, ' coincidence.' 

Balbo : L. Cornelius Balbus, one of Cicero's friends, and Caesar's 
agent. 

accuratius, * rather earnestly.' 

M. Iteium : a man whom Cicero had recommended to Caesar. 
Nothing is known about him. 

vel regem — delega, * I shall either make him ruler of Gaul, or do 
you hand him over to Lepta.* Caesar was not averse to a joke 
occasionally. 

Leptae : Caesar's praefectus fahrum, — * superintendent of work- 
men ' (or, * colonel of engineers '). 

Sustulimus manus : i.e., in surprise. 

Tanta fuit opportunitas, * the coming of the letter was so opportune.' 

nescio quid, * something.' 

atque — duxerim, * and on two grounds, first that it was my 
spontaneous idea to send him, and secondly because you have 
invited me to do so ' (Shuckburgh). 



144 CICERO'S LETTERS 

invitatu : " apparently used nowhere else " (Abbott). 

duxeiim, * thought/ or, * judged.* 

3. tua comitate, * your (well-known) affability.' 

quae — conf eras : possis is introduced by quae; veliSf by the 
second ut; conf eras, by the first ut. 

illo — meo : Cicero seems to have written a sort of formal letter 
to Caesar, requesting his support for Milo, who desired to stand for 
the consulship in 52. In his letter he had used a * hackneyed 
phrase * — vetere verbo (what it was, we do not know). At any rate, 
Caesar had made fun of it. — T. Annius Milo was a staunch supporter 
of Cicero and opponent of Clodius. In January, 52, he and Clodius, 
each followed by a gang of roughs, joined in a pitched battle at 
Bovillae, on the Via Appia. Clodius was killed. Four years later 
Milo, too, rhet a violent death. 

quod : object of lusisU. 

more Romano, * in the (true) Roman way.' 

non inepti, * serious,' or, * sober.' 

esse neminem : following spondeo. 

accedit etiam, * furthermore.' Accedit is frequently used thus, 
impersonally, meaning literally, * it is added.' 

familiam, * profession.' 

tribtmatum . . . praefecturam : military titles assigned to young 
men like Trebatius, who joined the army, not from any particular 
desire to master soldiering, but simply because it was a necessary 
preliminary to the cursus honorum (see note on consulibuSj III. i). 
In De Bello Gallico i. 39, Caesar gives a description of the behavior 
of his city tribunes and prefects when the army was in panic before 
Ariovistus, which proves that, at times, they made very indifferent 
fighters. 

neque impedio, * and yet, I do not,' etc. 

omes : to be construed with quo minus. 

* de manu — in manum,' * from my power into yours, as the 
saying is.* Manus was the term used of a master's power over his 
slave, and also of a father's authority over wife and children in the 
home. 

et victoria — praestantem, * distinguished alike for victory and 
for honor.' 

Simus, * it is possible that I am * ; potential subjunctive. 

putidiusculi, * rather tiresome.' — For the diminutive, see note 
on quid — fiet, XVII. 3. 

per te, * with such a man as yourself.' 



NOTES 145 

XXXIX. Ad Familisures 7. 6. Cumae, May, 54. 

Cicero — Trebatio: Trebatius was now in Gaul, and had written 
Cicero a letter complaining of the hardships through which he was 
passing. This reply was written in Cicero's villa at Cumae (an 
ancient town in Campania). 

1. Balbum : cf. note on Balbo, XXXVIII. 2. 
accessio, * addition.' 

commendationis : cf. note on Nonarum, XXIX. 5. 

desideria, * yearnings.* 

urbanitatis, * city comforts.' 

quo — consequere: that is, the purpose to gain prestige by a 
sufficiently long experience in the army. — Note that consilio stands 
in the relative clause (cf. note on quibus — probarenty XXXIII. 2). 
— There is a slight anacoluthon (or want of sequence) in these two 
clauses. Translated literally, they are, * with what purpose you 
went, follow it with perseverance and courage.' The usual arrange- 
ment would be, consilium, quo profectus es, assiduitate et virtute 
consequere. 

amici: in apposition with nos; sc. tui. 

qttam — Medeae : i.e., for living far from her native land. 

* Quae — optimates,' * those noble and wealthy matrons who 
dwelt in the lofty citadel of Corinth.' This line, with the others 
quoted in this letter, comes from the Medea of Ennius (cf. note on 
unus — rem, X. 2). 

manibus gypsatissimis, * with chalk-covered hands.' Chalk or 
gypsum was used by actors to whiten their faces, arms, and hands. 

ne — verterent, *not to consider it wrong.' — For the case of sibi 
and vitio, see note on nobis curaesty I. — On the use of sibi, see G. 309 ; 
A. 299-300; B. 244. 

patria : ablative of separation with procul (see G. 390. 3, note 2 ; 

A. 432. c; B. 144. 2). 

agerent: for the mood, see G. 634; A. 535. e; B. 283. 3. b. 

2. nisi te extrusissemus, * had I not shoved you out.' — Cicero 
jests frequently and charmingly throughout his correspondence with 
Trebatius. 

ceteris cavere, * to look out for others.' 

essedariis, * the charioteers ' (cf. Caesar, De Bello Gallico 4. 33). 

Medeam agere, * to play Medea.' 

quit: for the conjugation of this verb, see G. 170. a; A. 206. d; 

B. 137. I. 



146 CICERO'S LETTERS 

XL. Ad Familiares 7. 7. Cumae, May, 54. 

1. me — accipere: see G. 533; A. 572. b; B. 331. V. 

Quinto : Cicero's brother was in Gaul at this time as legaius to 
Caesar. In De Bello Gallico 5. 39-48, Caesar describes Quintus' 
bravery in defending his camp against Ambiorix and his allies. 

adferantur: subjunctive in a dependent clause in indirect dis- 
course. 

nihil . . . neque . . . neque : cf. note on ut — audieris, XIX. 2. 

essedum — recurras, * I advise you to grab a war-chariot and 
scurry home at once.* 

aliquod: for the declension and meaning of this pronoun, see 
G. 107. i; A. 151. e; B. 91. 2 and 4. 

2. adsequi — volumus: i.e., proper prestige for Trebatius. 

sis in familiaribus Caesaris, * make a place for yourself among 
Caesar's intimates.' 

pudor, * modesty.' Cicero, in a later letter, remarks, " There are 
men here from Gaul who say you are conceited " (see XLII. 3). 

timendum sit : cf. note on esse ferendum^ X. 3. 



XLI. Ad Atticum 4. 14. Cumae, May, 54. 

1. Vestorius : a banker who lived in Puteoli, a few miles from 
Cumae. 

valuisses: subjunctive because Cicero is quoting the banker's 
reason. 

ad te, * to your house (in town).' Cf. the French chez vous. 

pateant, * at my disposal.* 

cum — Varronis, * all, but especially Varro's' (see note on 7or- 
roniSy XII. i). 

ad eos — habeo: sc. libros. Cicero was working on his treatise, 
De Re Publica (a discussion, in six books, of the ideal state and the 
ideal citizen). 

tibi — probabo, * shall be thoroughly approved by you' (lit., *I 
shall render quite acceptable to you '). 

2. si — habes, * if you happen to have any news.' 

comitiis : the consular elections were only about three months off. 
soles — odorari, * for you have a way of smelling out such things 
beautifully.' 
intempestiva, * ill-timed.' 
rebus tuis : sc. confectis. 
Dionysitun : a learned freedman of Atticus. 



NOTES 147 

XLII. Ad Familiares 7. 16. Rome, November, 54. 

1. * Equo Troiano ' : cf. note on * si —fallo,' XXXVI. 2. 

* sere sapiunt * : proverbial. Supply, probably, Phryges, referring 
to the Trojans after the admission of the wooden horse (Aeneid 
2. 234 ff.). 

mi vetule, * old boy.* 

Primas — dedisti : sc. epistulas. — Trebatius had found it hard 
at first to accustom himself to the vigor of camp life (cf . introductory 
note to XXXIX). Tyrrell renders this clause, * your first letters 
were couched in- a mad-dog strain that was silly enough.* 

non nimis ^XoO^capov, * not over-desirous of taking in the sights.' 
Trebatius had remained in Gaul, instead of following Caesar into 
Britain. 

intectus, * short of cloaks ' (cf. note on qui — abundareSj XLIII. 2). 

curas : used here (with the infinitive) in the sense of * care ' or * desire.* 

* Usquequaque — acerrimum,' * in every situation be wise ; wis- 
dom will be thy keenest weapon.* This line is probably from the 
play referred to above. 

2. cenitarem, * made a practice of accepting dinner invita- 
tions.* 

Cn. Octavio : some man with more " brass " than brains, who had 
tried several times to get Cicero into his house for a dinner. 

homo bellus : almost equal to our slang expression, * a swell 
guy.* 

vellem — abduzisses, *I wish you had taken him with you.* — 
For the construction vellem . . . abduxisses, see note on cuperentj 
IX. 4. — Tyrrell aptly quotes Taming of the Shrew i. i. 253 ff. : 

First Serv. My lord, you nod : you do not mind the play. 

Sly. Yes, by Saint Anne, do I. A good matter surely. Comes 
there any more of it ? 

Page. My lord, *tis but begun. 

Sly. *Tis a very excellent piece of work, madam lady : would 
'twere done. 

3. ecquid, * whether (at all).* 

in Italiam : Caesar usually wintered in Cisalpine Gaul, the better 
to observe events in the city. 

Romano more : the meaning of this phrase varies. Here it 
signifies * literally * (cf. notes on more Romano and non inepti, 
XXXVIII. 3). 

bene nummatum, * well-moneyed.* 

Stoici : cf. note on Stoici, XXX. i. 



148 CICERO'S LETTERS 

Qui — respondere : cf. note on pudor, XL. 2. — Res ponder e fur- 
nishes a fair example of wretched Roman punning. The word 
means * to reply to a question/ and also, * to give legal advice.* 

gaudeas : cf . note on qui Romam proficiscantur, 11. i . 

Samarobrivae : a Gallic town near the west coast (now Amiens), 
where Caesar was wintering. Cicero's joke would be equivalent to 
" the most learned jurisconsult at the Crossroads." 

iuris : cf. note on vitae, XVII. i. 

XLin. Ad Familiares 7. 10. Rome, December, 54. 

1. Est — viderere, *you ought to be glad that you went to a 
place where you appeared to know something.' 

Quodsi — profectus esses : cf. note on non nimis <t>i\o0i<i)pov^ XLII. i. 

rideamus licet: the impersonal, licet, may take the subjunctive 
(without «/), the simple infinitive, the infinitive with subject accusa- 
tive, or the dative and infinitive. 

subinvideo tibi, * I am a little envious of you.' — Sub- weakens, 
per- strengthens. 

accersitum : the usual form is arcessitum. Sc. te, following sub- 
invideo , a verb of emotion (see note on me . . , accipere, XL. i). 
Render, * called in to give legal advice.' 

eo : Caesar. 

2. camino luculento, ' a good fire.' 

idem — placebat, ' Mucius and Manilius hold that such a thing is 
quite constitutional.' Cicero cites two leading legal authorities to 
support his own opinion that a bright fire is advisable on a cold day 
in Samarobriva I 

qui — abundares : see note on inteclus, XLII. i. — The sagum, 
or * military cloak,* was the peculiar badge of the soldier. Cicero 
twits Trebatius on being ill supplied with these cloaks. — For 
the mood of abundares, see note on fugerem, XXI. i. 

vos — calere, * things are getting quite warm enough for you.' 
Ambiorix and the Gauls were responsible for the heat (see note on 
Quinto, XL. i). 

qui — essedarios: these two clauses refer to Trebatius' prudent 
decision to remain in Gaul rather than go to Britain (see note on non 
nimis (f>i\od^<apoPj XLII. i). 

quern — poteramus, * although heretofore we couldn't keep you 
from going to see even a blinded gladiator fight.' 

andabata : a gladiator whose helmet had no openings for the eyes. 
The andabatae were to the gladiatorial games what the preliminary 
bouts are to a prize fight to-day. They were introduced to keep the 



NOTES 149 

people amused till the real sport began. — For the case, cf. note on 
tnolestiaf XII. 2. 

3. tute: see G. 102, note 2; A. 143. d; B. 84. 2. 
ego : sc. scio; with quam saepe. 

intermiseram : epistolary tense (see note on dedcram, VII). 
meique : met is objective genitive, following amantissimi. 
voluntati : cf. note on iis^ X. i. 

putavi — commonendtim : Trebatius was not advancing as rapidly 
in Caesar's good graces as Cicero wished him to do. 

4. Sic — velim, * but be assured.* 
id : i.e., " your stay in Gaul." 

nihil — stultius, * nothing is more asinine than the two of us.* 

me . . . te : ablatives. 

attraham . . . advoles : for the mood, cf . note on qui — ahun- 
dares ^ 2. 

congressio, * conversation.* 

pluris : cf . note on quanti . . . taniiy XXXV. 2. 

fratres — Haedui : a tribe in Gaul whose members had been hailed 
as fratres by the senate in 58 (see De Bello Gallico i. 33). * Our 
brothers, the barbarians,' will express Cicero's sarcasm. 

* Aut — iuvero,' *I will stand by you, either with consolation, 
counsel, or cash ' (Terence, Heauion Timorumenos 86 ; cf . note on 
' nee — salieniy* X. i). 

XLIV. Ad Familiares 7. 12. Rome, February, 53. 

1. Pansa: C. Vibius Pansa, tribune of the plebs, 52-51. 

O castra praeclara : a truly remarkable camp, if it had succeeded 
in planting Epicurean serenity in the breast of Trebatius ! 

Tarenttim : cf . note on Tarenti, XVI. This city was noted for its 
luxurious living. 

lam — Selius, * for a long time, — in fact, ever since you adopted 
Selius' view of things, — you have somewhat displeased me.' — 
Selius was a Neo-Academic, or follower of Philo {floruit 90), who 
taught that man could never reach absolute certainty, but must 
be content with probability or " practical conviction." 

2. cum — civium, 'since you do everything for your own sake 
and not for your fellow-men.' Cf. notes on Epicurum and Stoicij 
XXX. I. Trebatius, being a lawyer, would, in Cicero's view, find 
much diflSculty in regulating his practice conformably to the tenets 
of his philosophy. — With civium^ sc. causa (see note on neccssitu- 
dinisy IV. 3). 

fonnula fiduciae: the legal phrase, ^ ut — oportety^ was employed 



I so , CICERO'S LETTERS 

to insure the carrying out of pledges concerning property transfers, 
etc. 

agier : an archaic form, — for agi, 

quis enim est : sc. bonus. 

Quod: interrogative adjective. See G. io6; A. 148. b; B. 90. 2. 

* Communi Dividundo/ * in the division of property ' (among 
members of a partnership). — Dividundo = dividendo. 

eos — metiunttir: i.e.y the Epicureans. 

* lovem — lurare/ ' to swear by Jupiter lapis.* This phrase refers 
to an oath sworn in certain suits. The person taking the oath 
held in his hand a stone and called upon Jupiter to bless him, if he 
kept his vow ; if not, to cast him out, even as he cast the stone. 

lovem — posse: since, according to the Epicurean view, the gods 
had no interest in human affairs and took no part in the management 
of the world. 

populo Ulubrano : Trebatius was pair onus , or * representative,* of 
the little municipium, Ulubrae, in the southern part of Latium. 

si tu — oportere, * if you make up your mind that it's wrong to 
engage actively in public affairs.' See again note on Stoiciy XXX. i. 

si — deficis, * if you are really deserting us.' Cicero speaks as 
though he belonged to a definite school of philosophy. He was, in 
reality, an eclectic, — and he was certainly not an Epicurean. 

adsentari, * to humor.' 

XLV. Ad Atticum 5. i. Mintumae, May 7, 51. 

Cicero was now on his way to Cilicia, the province which he was 
to govern as proconsul. He made Laodicea, a town in Phrygia, his 
headquarters. During his term of ofiice, his record, for honesty 
and efiiciency, was unimpeachable. — Minturnae was a town near 
the coast, about eighty miles southeast of Rome. 

1. animum, ^ state of mind.' 
meo : sc. animo. 

ut . . . ne : see G. 545, remark i ; A. 563. e, note 2, and 531 ; 
B. 282. I. b. 
nostrum desideritmi : that is, " our longing for each other." 
annuum : proconsuls usually held office for one year, but there were 
frequent exceptions to this rule. Cicero's term lasted from July 31, 
51, when he reached Laodicea, to July 30, 50, when he started home- 
ward. — For the case of annuum {desiderium)^ see G. 296, remark 4 ; 
A. 407. c; B. 217. 3. 

2. Amiio Satumino : a freedman of Annius Milo (see note on 
illo — meo J XXXVIII. 3). It is impossible to say just what business 



NOTES 151 

relations Cicero had with this man. In fact, none of the transactions 
mentioned in this section can be explained with absolute certainty, 
since Atticus' letter, to which this epistle is the reply, is lost. 

De satis dando : sc. Saturnino, ' concerning the giving of security 
(to Saturninus).* 

satisdationes — mancipitim, ' guarantees on the transfer of prop- 
erty ' ; that is, proofs that the deed contained no flaw. Cicero advises 
Atticus to make use of a guarantee in the transaction then pending 
such as had been employed in the case of the estates of Mennius. 

Atilianorum : Sextus Atilius Serranus was tribune in 57. — " Cicero 
probably refers to a former sale by him of some farms which he had 
bought belonging to the estate of Mennius, who, he afterwards 
remembers, had previously disposed of the lands to Atilius, so that 
Atilius was really the seller of the farms to Cicero " (Tyrrell). 

Oppio : C. Oppius was one of Caesar's agents. 

DCCC, * eight hundred thousand sesterces.' Cf. note on 
HS XXCDy I. Cicero owed this sum to Caesar, and Atticus had 
offered to advance the money. 

aperuisti: the meaning of this word is doubtful. Shuckburgh 
and Abbott follow the Lewis and Short Dictionary in rendering, * you 
expressed a willingness to pay.' Tyrrell inserts de before the 
numerals, and translates aperire de, * to explain the details of.' 

Quae : sc.y as antecedent, octiens (centena milia) sestertium. — 
Sesiertium is the old form of sestertiorum (cf. note on tot oppidum 
cadaver ay LIX. 4). The full form is rare. 

vel, ' even.' 

versura facta : ablative absolute, * if I have to borrow again.' — 
Versura = * the borrowing of money to pay a debt ' (lit., * a changing ' 
— of creditors). 

ne — exspectetur, * in order not to wait till the very last day for 
the payment of moneys due me.' That is, Cicero prefers to borrow 
from another source sufficient funds to enable him to pay off his 
debt to Caesar, rather than to wait until enough money accumulates 
from his own debtors to cancel that particular obligation. 

nominum: cf. note on notnina sc facturum, XXXV. i. 

3. ad transversum — versiculum, * that line written crosswise at 
the end of your letter.' 

sorore : x\tticus' sister, Pomponia, was the wife of Ouintus Cicero 
(see note on ncque — decro^ XXXVII. 3). The couple had been on 
rather bad terms for a considerable length of time. 

Arpinas : an adjective ; sc. praedium. See note on tantum — 
veneraniy XXXV. i. 



152 CICERO'S LETTERS 

f rater : Quintus Cicero accompanied his brother to Cilicia as 
legatus. 

fueramus: with locuti (cf. note on constiiutum Juerit, XXVII. i). 
Render, * had discussed.' 

in sororem tuam, * toward your sister.' 

si qua — offensio, * whatever disagreement there had been on 
the matter of expenses.' The indicative, fuerat^ used initead of 
the subjunctive, implies that there had really been a quarrel. 

Arcane : Quintus' villa in the little Volscian town of Arcae. 

dies: that is, " a festival day." Owners of country places were 
in the habit of spending such days in entertaining their tenants. 

Aquini : a town on the Via Latina, seventy-five miles from Rome. 
Cicero spent the night at Aquinum, but dined with his brother at 
Arcae. 

* tu — viros * : that is, to the feast in the villa in honor of the 
festival. 

accivero, (* by the time you have finished extending your invitation 
to the ladies) I shall have invited.' 

cum . . . turn, * not only ' . . . * but also.* 

hospita, * a stranger.' 

id refers to the preceding clause. 

Statins : Quintus' freedman (see note on Siatium manu missum, 
X. i). He had gone ahead of the party to see that all due arrange- 
ments were made for their entertainment. Pomponia seems to have 
been offended because this was not left to her. 

videret, * see to.' 

* En,' * there you are.* 

4. Dices — erat: equivalent to, "you will say that was a mere 
trifle." 

istuc: see G. 104, note 2; A. 146. a; B. 87, footnote 2. 

responderat : sc. Pomponia, as subject. 

Discubuimus, * we took our places at table.' The Romans re- 
clined on couches at meals, leaning on the left elbow. 

de mensa misit : sc. cibum. 

maiori stomacho, * more distasteful.' — Stomacho is dative of 
purpose (or service). 

Aquinum : sc. profectus sum. 

cum discessura esset : Pomponia did not accompany her husband 
to Cilicia. — A few years later they were divorced. 

fuisse — vidissem, * she behaved exactly as I had seen her be- 
have (the day before).' 

Quid quaeris, * can you ask further particulars? ' 



NOTES 153 

vel, * even,' or, * if you like.* 

ipsi . . . ei : Pomponia. 

humanitatem, ' common courtesy.' 

instituendi et monendi : sc, earn. 

6. exhaurias, ' carefully carry out.' 

Pomptinmn extrudas, * hustle Pomptinus (out of the city).* He 
was a staunch friend 'of Cicero, and, as praetor, had rendered him 
valuable assistance in 63. In addition to Pomptinus and Quintus, 
M. Anneius and L. Tullius, of whom practically nothing is known, 
served Cicero as legati during his proconsulship. 

sic habeas, * know.* — Observe the striking asyndeton in this 
sentence. 

A. Torqtiattim : praetor in 52. 

amantissime dimisi, * I took affectionate leave of.* 

in sermone, * when you next talk with him.* 

XLVI. Ad Familiares 2. 11. Laodicea, April 4, 50. 

Imp. : Cicero had conducted a successful sally against some 
rebellious tribes in the mountainous districts of his province, and 
had been hailed Imperator by his soldiers. He was evidently not 
loath to have his friends know of this new honor, since it proved 
that he was a man of war, as well as " the author of peace " {pads 
auctori, XXXV. 2). 

Aedili Cunili: the curule aediles, two in number, w6re elected 
annually (after 365) by the comitia trihuta. Since 494 (see note on 
trihunis pi. designatisy XIX. i), two plebeian aediles had been elected 
each year. The duties of the two sets of aediles were practically the 
same. They were charged with superintending the police and fire 
departments, watching over the markets and the distribution of 
grain, taking due care of the streets and public buildings, and pre- 
siding at the' games (see note on ludis Apollinaribus, X. 3). 

1. accidere posse, * that it could happen.' 

vestra ofatoria: Caelius was a lawyer, and so would naturally 
employ in his speeches the sermo urhanus^ — the language of culture 
and literature. 

nostratia : that is, the words of the sermo cottidianuSj or * everyday 
talk.* 

quidnam — decematur : as the next sentence shows, Cicero was 
very anxious that his term of office should close on July 30, — a 
year from the day of his arrival, — and he actually did leave the 
province on that day (see note on annuum^ XLV. i). 



154 CICERO'S LETTERS 

Mirum — urbis: four years before, Cicero had warned Trebatius 
against this very feeling (see tu modo — consequere^ XXXIX. i). 

incredibile : sc. desiderium. 

vel . . . vel . . . vel, * partly * ... * partly ' . . . * partly.' 

fortuna, * (a change of) fortune.' 

belli magni : the Parthians were threatening Cicero's province, 
and the imperator wa.s growing exceedingly uneasy about it! 

ad constitutam diem : see note on annuum, XL V. i . — For the 
gender of diem, cf. note on qua — die, XXXV. i. 

2. pantheris : Caelius had written to Cicero, requesting him to 
send some panthers to Rome to be used in the games. The proconsul 
replies, in this letter, as formally as though he were reporting some 
matter of grave importance. 

quod — fiat, 'because snares are laid for no one in my province 
save for them.' Cicero's rSgime was notably free from the dishonest 
practices so characteristic of Roman provincial government. Traps 
were set, in Cilicia, only for wild animals, and so, forsooth, the poor 
beasts complained ! 

Cariam : an adjoining province. 

sedulo fit, * vigorous action is being taken.* 

Patisco: a member of Cicero's retinue. 

Quicqwd : sc. pantherarum. 

esset . . . nesciebamus : epistolary tenses. 

ipsis Megalensibus : games in honor of Cybele, the fieydXri fn^rrjp 
(magna mater), April 4-10. See note on ludis Apollinaribus, X. 3. 

XLVII. Ad Atticum 6. 4. On a journey from Tarsus, June, 50. 

1. Tarstim : the chief city of Cilicia, and the birthplace of St. Paul. 

Ssrria : the Syrian territory joined Cilicia on the east. 

annui muneris, * my year of duty.' 

illud — difficillimum, 'but, most diflScult of all.' — Illud is often 
used thus of what follows (for example, cf. illud praeierea, 3). 

relinquendus est : sc. aliquis; that is, some one to take up his 
duties promptly. 

Nihil — poterat, *no one is less suitable.' — Nihil is much stronger 
than nemo, for the comparison it suggests is universal. 

Mescinius: Cicero refers to him, in Ad Alt. 6. 3. i, as ^ levls, 
libidinosus, tagax,^ * a dissolute fribble — light-fingered too '(Tyrrell). 

Caelio: C. Caelius Caldus, a young nobleman, who had been 
appointed quaestor for Cilicia. 

discessus, * separation.' 

rem: for the case, cf. note on me miserumj X. i. 



NOTES ISS 

2. cuius de condicione : Tullia had been divorced from Crassipes 
(see note on viaticum Crassipes praeripit, XXXIII. 3) and was now 
the wife of P. Cornelius Dolabella, a profligate politician. They had 
been married after Cicero *s departure, — in 51, — and were divorced 
in 46. 

honore nostro : Cicero was hoping that the senate would grant a 
supplicaiio (' day of public thanksgiving ') in honor of his victory 
over the mountaineers (see note on /m/>., XL VI, greeting). 

vereor . . . acttun ... sit : cf . note on necesse sit^ X. 2. 

de litteris meis : Cicero feared that his letter, unsupported by a 
personal appeal, might not be sufl&cient to stir the senators to their 
duty. 

3. liwrTiK^Tcpov, * somewhat mysteriously.' This was necessary 
in some cases, in order to prevent the messenger from gaining a 
knowledge of important secrets, should he be inclined to read the 
letter intrusted to his care. Furthermore, letters were sometimes 
lost or stolen. See note on iv alviyfjuoUj X. 5. 

Tf|s — 4{ao-^AXurai, * my wife's freedman, — you know the fellow, 

— has led me to believe, from a casual word or two, that he falsified 
his accounts on the purchase of the Crotonian tyrannicide's property. 
I fear you have observed something. Kindly give this matter 
your personal attention and put what remains safely beyond his 
reach.' "The Crotonian Tyrannicide" is Milo (see note on illo — 
meoy XXXVIII. 3). After the murder of Clodius, Milo was tried 
and convicted, though Cicero appeared in his defense. He was 
banished, and his property was confiscated. At the sale (which was 
under Cicero's supervision), Philotimus — " my wife's freedman " 

— had contrived for Terentia to get some of the money realized. 
Cf. also note on quaedam domestica^ XXIX. 8. 

obviae, ' to meet.' 

agmine, * with my soldiers ' (lit., ' in marching array '). 

Piliae . . . Caeciliae : Atticus' wife and little daughter. 

XLVIII. Ad Familiares 16. i. On the journey home, Novem- 
ber 3, 50. 

Tuliius — Fratris F. : Marcus and Quintus Cicero, with their sons 
and the freedman. Tiro, had left Laodicea on July 30. — C. Caelius 
Caldus (see note on Caelio, XL VII. i) was left in charge of the 
province of Cilicia. — Tiro fell sick on the way and stopped in 
Patrae, a town on the coast of Achaia, while the rest of the party 
continued their journey. — Note the change from the third to the 
first person, in suo . . . mens. 



156 CICERO'S LETTERS 

1. desiderium tui : Cicero was very fond of Tiro. He had had 
him thoroughly educated and had manumitted him in 53. Tiro, 
besides editing Cicero's speeches and letters, wrote a biography of 
the orator and certain grammatical treatises, and is said to have 
invented a system of shorthand. See also introduction, section 2. 

magni — venire : Cicero was still entertaining high hopes of cele- 
brating a triumph for his engagement with the mountain tribes 
in Cilicia (cf. note on honore nostra , XL VII. 2), and so he desired 
to arrive in the neighborhood of Rome as soon as possible, in order 
to push the matter. He would, of course, be compelled to remain 
outside the city until the senate decided whether or not he was 
entitled to a triumph. When at last he arrived near the walls, on 
Jan. 4, 49, he found that the senate was so concerned with Caesar's 
movements that his triumph was practically forgotten. — For the 
case of magni f see note on per magni, XL 3. 

discesserim : see note on fugerem, XXI. i. 

prorsus . . . noUes, * you were absolutely unwilling.' 

videris — consequi: this letter was written the day after Cicero 
and his party left Patrae for Alyzia (a little town near the coast, in 
Acarnania). 

Marionem : a slave. 

2. commode valetudinis tuae, ' without injury to your health ' 
(lit., * along with the advantage of your health '). 

Leucade : a promontory at the southern end of the island of 
Leucadia, ofif the Acarnanian coast. — For the case, see note on 
Romae . . . AtheniSy II. i. 

te confirmare, ' get entirely well.' 

comites . . . tempestates : sc. idoneos . . . idoneas. 

videbis : cf. note on silehis, IX. 3. 

moveant, * disturb.' 

3. pro tuo ingenio, * in accordance with your own feelings.' 

ut amemus, * so that (I do not forget that) I love you.' The meaning 
is explained in the following clauses. Cicero longs for Tiro, but his 
affection for his secretary bids him check his longing, and so desire to 
see him only after a complete restoration to health. 

illud, * the former.' 

XLIX. Ad Atticum 8. 13. Formiae, March i, 49. 

1. Lippitudinis, * sore eyes.' 

in nuntiis Brundisinis : in January, 49, the senate passed a resolu- 
tion calling upon Caesar to lay down his arms or be declared a public 
enemy. The tribunes, Mark Antony and Q. Cassius, vetoed this 



NOTES 157 

resolution, and, on being threatened with violence, fled to Caesar's 
camp, north of the Rubicon. Caesar immediately crossed the river 
with his army and moved on Rome, on the pretext of avenging the 
tribunes, whose persons were held to be sacred. Pompey was 
ordered to deal with his former associate, but he retreated to Brun- 
disium, whence he sailed for Greece with his forces before Caesar 
could overtake him. Cicero hoped for peace to the last, and was 
even now awaiting tidings from Brundisium, where, he trusted, 
Caesar and Pompey might settle their differences amicably. 

hie . . . ille : Caesar . . . Pompey. 

Gnaeum : Pompey. — When the time for declaring his allegiance 
came, Cicero unhesitatingly cast his lot with the Pompeians. 

tramisisset : this verb is apparently used intransitively here, in 
the sense of * to cross over.* In reality, however, there are two 
accusatives understood, exercitum and marej and the verb is transitive. 
See G. 330, remark i ; A. 395 ; B. 179. 

videsne — parattim : Cicero could not refrain from admiring Caesar, 
even though be bitterly opposed his policies. 

cuiquam quicquam, * anything from any one.' — For the case of 
cuiquaniy cf . note on mihi, XIV. * 

2. nihil — nummulos sues: an excellent description of the selfish 
fears of the city- and country-folk. Note the contemptuous use of 
the diminutives, villulas and nummulos^ — * miserable shacks,* 
* measly savings ' (or, * paltry bank accounts '). — Observe also the 
chiasmus in municipales . . . nummulos^ rusticani . . . villulas (see 
G. 682; A. 598. f and note; B. 350. 11. c). 

ilium: Pompey. 

quo: cf. note on /e, IV. i. 

hunc — timebant: Caesar rapidly won the favor of the country 
people, as he marched southward in pursuit of Pompey, by his 
kindness and generosity, even toward his enemies. 

Id — evenerit : Pompey had taken no particular pains to keep the 
rusUci friendly to him. 

Quae — putarem : dependent upon scrips cram, 

L. Ad Familiares 14. 12. Brundisium, November 4, 48. 

Cicero had an interview with Caesar at Formiae (see note on in 
Formianum, VI. 2) in March, 49, during which he attempted to 
reconcile the dictator to Pompey. He was unsuccessful, and in 
June he sailed for Epirus. On August 9, 48, Caesar defeated 
Pompey at Pharsalus, in Thessaly. Cicero was in Dyrrachium, 
seriously ill, and so missed the opportunity of saying a final fare- 



158 CICERO^S LETTERS 

well to Pompey, who fled to Africa after the battle and was mur- 
dered. Cicero returned to Italy in October, 48, at great peril to 
himself, since Caesar had forbidden his defeated enemies to enter 
the country. — The tone of this letter is cold and formal. Clearly 
the breach between Cicero and Terentia was widening. 

dolore animi : on account of Pompey's defeat and death. 

iniuriis: after the battle of Pharsalus, the Pompeians, led by 
Cato (see note on CatOj LIII. 2), offered Cicero the command of the 
troops at Dyrrachium. He refused, and they now regarded him as a 
traitor (see also note on ne — possimusy below). Furthermore, a 
misunderstanding had sprung up between Cicero and his brother, 
and he was also uneasy about his daughter, whose third matri- 
monial venture was proving most unhappy (see note on cuius de 
condicionej XL VII. 2). 

ne — possimus : his presence in Italy was fraught with a twofold 
danger; first, from Caesar, and second, from the Pompeians. 
They had gathered a great army in Africa and still hoped to defeat 
the dictator. If they succeeded, Cicero would receive summary 
punishment as a traitor, because he had returned to Italy instead of 
joining the African forces. 

In viam — nihil est, * there is no reason for you to come at present.' 

Et longum — si veneris: Cicero simply did not care to see his 
wife, and these excuses are rather flimsy. 

D. : datae, * written.* Sc. liUerae. 

LI. Ad Familiares 14. 15. Brundisium, June 19, 47. 

Si vales, benest : this letter is even more formal than the preceding 
one. 

obviam . . . Caesari : Caesar was returning to Italy from his 
victory over Pharnaces at Zela (a city in Pontus), and Cicero planned 
to send his son to meet the dictator and endeavor to win his pardon. 

Sicca : see note on Sicca — periret, XV. To be compelled to learn 
her husband's wishes and plans from a third party must have sorely 
grieved Terentia. 

LII. Ad Familiares 14. 20. Venusia, October i, 47. 

This is the last letter to Terentia, so far as we know. It was 
written from the neighborhood of Venusia, an Apulian town about 
two hundred miles from Rome, celebrated as Horace's birthplace. 
Cicero had met Caesar at Tarentum in September, and had received 
a generous pardon. He was now on his way to his villa at Tusculum. 
About a year later he and Terentia were divorced. 



NOTES 159 

ut sint: cf. note on modo — oti tut, XXXVI. i. See also ut 
sity below. 

plures, * several gentlemen.' 

labnim, ' a basin.' 

balineo, * the bathroom.' — Under the early accent law, this 
word was pronounced bdlineum. The i, being unaccented, in time 
suffered syncope, or suppression (see G. 725; A. 640; B. 367. 8), and 
the word appears most frequently in classical Latin as balneum. 

ut sit : cf . note on ut sint, above. 

Venusino : sc. agro, and cf . note on Tarentino, XVI. 

LIII. Ad Familiares 9. 18. Tusculum, July, 46. 

Paeto : L. Papirius Paetus was a wealthy Epicurean who had long 
been Cicero's warm friend. 

1. discipulos : Cicero was giving some training in oratory to a 
small group of men, among whom were his son-in-law, P. Cornelius 
Dolabella, and Aulus Hirtius, author of De Bello Gallico, Book VIII. 
These young men were friends of Caesar. That very probably 
explains why Cicero was willing to devote his time and attention to 
them. 

obviam : sc. Caesari. Caesar was now returning to Italy from 
Africa, where, in April, he had defeated the Pompeians at the battle 
of Thapsus (cf. note on ne — possimtiSj L). 

eadem : sc. opera, lit., * through the same means.* Render, * at 
the same time.' 

Dionysius tyrannus : Dionysius the Younger succeeded his father 
on the throne of Syracuse in 367. In 346 he surrendered to Timoleon 
of Corinth, who had come to deliver the Greek cities of Sicily from the 
tyrants. Timoleon allowed him to go in safety to Corinth, where he 
supported himself by conducting a school. 

sublatis iudiciis, * now that the courts are abolished.' During the 
Civil War legal procedure had been very irregular. 

regno, * my leadership.' 

coeperim : for the mood, cf . note on vererere, IV. 3. 

2. multa — consequor, * for I gain much (by it).' 

Id — nescio, 'I don't know how much such protection is worth to 
me ' (that is, the protection of Dolabella's and Hirtius' friendship). 

me : subject of anteponere, of which consilium and huic {sc. con- 
silio) are direct and indirect objects, respectively. 

f uit : see G. 591, remark 4; A. 525. b; B. 302. i. 

In lectulo, fateor: i.e., "if I could have died a natural death, 
I admit it would have been better to die." 



i6o CICERO'S LETTERS 

in acie non fui : cf . introductory note to L. 

Lentulus tuus, Scipio, Afranius : Pompeian leaders. 

At, * but, you will say.' 

Cato: M. Porcius Cato Uticensis, great-grandson of Cato the 
Censor (see note on M. Cato, LXI. i). He was a deep student of 
philosophy and a staunch adherent of the Stoic school, — dis- 
tinguished among his associates for his noble character and rigid 
morality. He joined Pompey in 49, and, after Pharsalus, went to 
Africa. When the battle of Thapsus had established Caesar's 
supremacy, he committed suicide, as a good Stoic should have done. 

praeclare : sc. periit. 

id quod agimus, * in fact, that's what I'm doing now.' Cicero 
clearly did not relish the idea of suicide. Cf. note on valde paenitet 
viverCj XV. 

3. Ergo hoc primum : i.e.j " my plan seems a good one, in the 
first place, because it points toward reconciliation and safety." 

intermissis exercitationibus : that is, * practice in speaking.' 
Tyrrell points out that " the Roman practised declamation to 
supply the place of that physical exercise for which we have recourse 
to field sports and out-of-door pursuits of various kinds." 

exaruisset : from exaresco. 

quod — putes, * which I rather think you will consider of first 
importance ' (lit., * which I know not whether you will think,' etc.). 

pavones : the meaning is, " my exercise has helped me so much, 
that I can now digest even peacock." 

confeci, * I have consumed.' 

pullos columbinos, * paltry pigeons ' (Melmoth). 

Tuistic — Hirtiano, *you there revel in Haterian law-sauce, I here 
in Hirtian hot-sauce' (Shuckburgh). Haterius was a lawyer who 
was visiting Paetus at his home in Naples ; Hirtius, while studying 
oratory under Cicero (see note on disci pulos, i), was teaching him 
how to dine properly. 

TTpoXcYOfi^^as, * fundamental principles ' (of good cooking). 

etsi sus Minervam : sc. docehity — a Greek proverb. Render, 
* although it will be a case of the pig teaching Minerva.' 

4. Sed — videro, * but I'll see that you get the instruction, in 
some way or other.* 

aestimationes : Caesar had made a law requiring creditors to 
accept land, valued at the price it would have brought before the 
Civil War, in payment of debts. The word aesHmatiOj 'valuation,' 
is used to refer to such land. 

denarionun : the denarius (four sesterces) was a silver coin, equal 



NOTES i6i 

to sixteen or eighteen cents in our money. — For the case, see note 
on tut, XXVIII. 

satius : see note on minus y XVII. i. 

cruditate . . . fame : sc. mori. 

bona perdidisse : that is, by Caesar's edict, referred to above (in 
note on aestimationes). 

spero — tuos : that is, "if your friends in Naples are as poverty- 
stricken as you are, they will be unable to make life sufficiently 
pleasaat to induce you to remain there." 
. Actum — est: cf. note on transactum est^ XVII. 3. 

quoniam — comedisti; 'since you've devoured your nag' (that 
is, " since you've had to sell the beast to keep from starving "). — 
For the conjugation of comedo, see G. 172; A. 201 ; B. 128. 2. 

in ludo : Cicero's school of oratory. 

hjrpodidascalo, * as assistant head master.' 

proxima : sc. mihi, * next to mine.' 

eam — sequetur, * after a while you shall have a cushion,' 

LIV. Ad Familiares 9. 20. Rome, August, 46. 

1. quod — ridere : Paetus had been ill, and was now convalescing. 

iam, * by this time.' 

me — oneratum esse, * to being overwhelmed with your shafts of 
ridicule, as though I were a light skirmisher in the war of wits ' 
(Shuckburgh). " The scurra was the professional wit and diner-out, 
whose object in life was to secure a good dinner, and whose stock 
in trade was flattery, wit, and buffoonery. . . . The veles was a 
skirmisher. Therefore a scurra veles would be a wit who carried on a 
guerilla warfare, taking a shot at every one and everything about 
him. . . . The opportunity of the scurra at a dinner came with the 
secunda mensa, when the company gave itself up to conversation 
and jest, but the mdla (apples), which were brought on at this point, 
lent themselves as ready missiles to be used against the jester. In 
a similar way, to the volley of wit which Cicero had aimed at Paetus 
in his letters Paetus replies with mdla (raillery)." — Abbott. 

illud doleo : dolere, usually an intransitive verb, here takes the 
accusative, and means, * I lament.' See G. 333 and note i ; A. 388. a; 
B. 176. 2. a. 

in ista loca, * into your part of the country.' 

contubemalem, * a real companion-in-arms.' 

promulside, * the appetizer.' This consisted of pickles, eggs, 
radishes, etc. — Cicero informs Paetus that his own appetite has 
increased enormously. 



1 62 CICERO'S LETTERS 

ad ovum : part of the promidsis. 

ad asstim vitulinum, * even to the roast veal * (the last course 
before dessert, — the piice de resistance). 

nia mea, * my former ways/ 

in Epicuri — castra : that is, " I have given myself up wholly to 
the joy of living " (cf. note on si — deficis, XLIV. 2). 

hanc insolentiam, * the queer (strange) ways of to-day.' 

cum — habebas, * when you had money to spend.' 

etsi — habuisti: cf. note on aestimationes , LIII. 4. Paetus had 
a number of farms on his hands, which he had received in payment of 
debts, but little cash. 

2. tibi res est, * you've got to deal with.' 

qui — intellegat: cf. note on tu istic — HirtianOy LIII. 3. 

iam : cf . note on /am, i . 

o\|;i)iaOcts, * who learn things late in life.* Melmoth renders 
6y//ifia6€is — sinty * you know there is a peculiar air of self-sufficiency, 
that generally distinguishes those who enter late into the study of 
any art.' 

dediscendae, * must be discarded * (lit., * unlearned '). 

sportellae et artolagani tui, * your little baskets and cakes.' 
Cicero implies that such trifles will no longer satisfy him. 

artis : that is, " of serving a dinner." 

Verrium . . . Camilliim : two well-known epicures. 

Etiam Hirtio, " I even had the temerity to give a dinner to my 
instructor in the art of dining." 

pavone : cf. note on pavoneSy LIII. 3. 

nihil — imitari: here we have a double negative. The meaning 
is, " my cook equaled Hirtius in everything, save the hot sauce " 
(lit., * there was nothing my cook could not imitate, save,' 
etc.). 

3.. salutamus : men of wealth and prominence were in the habit 
of holding informal receptions at their residences during the morning 
hours. So, particularly in the period of the empire, the patron 
received his train of impecunious clients who called for their daily 
dole of money or food. 

bonos viros : see note on bonis y IX. i. 

laetos victores : the Caesarians. 

scribe : Cicero's Orator was published in 46, and probably his 
Brutus (or De Claris Oratoribus)y also. 

corpori : i.e.y to exercise, the bath, etc. 

Patriam — filium: Cicero had beheld, in Caesar's steady rise to 
supreme power, the downfall of the republic he had loved and served 



NOTES 163 

so well. But he informs Paetus here, that his days of mourning are 
over, and that now he purposes to enjoy life to the full. 

te iacente : cf . note on quod — rider e^ 1 . 

comedim : cf. note on quoniam — comedisti, LIII. 4. 

LV. Ad Familiares 4. 4. Rome, September or October, 46. 

Ser. Sulpicio : Servius S*ulpicius Ruf us was an orator, jurist, and 
man of letters. He supported Caesar's cause in the Civil War, and 
was appointed proconsul of Achaia in 47 or 46. 

1. uno ezemplo, * in duplicate ' (lit., * with one copy '). — Owing 
to the fact that messengers were often untrustworthy, important 
letters were frequently sent in duplicate,. by two different men. 

ex ea parte, quatenus, * only so far as ' (Shuckburgh). 

qui episttilas accipiant : the tahellarii. 

fieri . . . ne . . . perferanttir : a negative clause of purpose. — The 
sense is, " hindrances are set up to keep them from being brought," 
etc. 

isdem verbis : Sulpicius had apologized for the monotonous char- 
acter of his letters. 

' divitias orationis,' ' an excellent vocabulary.' 

agnosco, * recognize.' 

clpttvc^wo-Oai, * to feign modesty.* 

nee hoc clptt»vcv<S|uvos, * nor do I say this with any false modesty.* 
Sc. dico. — The thought is, ** you apologize for the monotony of your 
letters by saying that your vocabulary is limited. Why, even I, 
whom you credit with an exuberant style (and, to be frank, you are 
about right), gladly yield to you the palm for refined and elegant 
workmanship.** 

2. hoc — negotitim: t.e., the proconsulship in Achaia. 

ciun — probavissem, 'although I had always approved of it.* — 
For the mood of probavissem, see G. 588. 2; A. 549. b; B, 290. 2. 

causae, ' reasons * (for accepting the position). 

Quod — opinatus sis, * as to your feeling that your expectations 
have not fully materialized.* That is, Sulpicius had hoped for hap- 
piness in his new work, but had been disappointed, and now believed 
he would find life more pleasant at Rome. Cicero undertakes to 
dispel this illusion (as he regarded his friend's feeling). — The sub- 
junctive, opinatus sis, can be due only to a confusion of mind on 
Cicero*s part. The verb, existimas, suggested to him that he was 
to use indirect discourse. 

sed, ' in fact.* 

bello : the CivU War. 



1 64 CICERO'S LETTERS 

sit : sc. miserrimus videatur. — For the mood, see G. 663 ; A. 593 ; 
B. 324. 

consili — te: see G. 377; A. 354. b; B. 209. 

tibi : cf. note on mihi, X. i. 

molestiis : cf. note on re, VI. i. 

hoc ipso, * for this very reason.* 

nos — posstimus : the restraint put upon free speech was a sure 
prognostication of the approaching empire. 

victoris: Caesar. 

vitio : ablative of cause. 

insolens : the meaning is, that the victors in a civil war are more 
arrogant than victors are after a successful foreign war, for they be- 
hold daily their fallen foes and quite naturally assume toward them 
a haughty and domineering air. 

3. Marcelli: Sulpicius had been consul with M. Marcellus in 51. 
The latter was bitterly hostile to Caesar, and had withdrawn to 
Mitylene, the chief city of the island of Lesbos, after the battle of 
Pharsalus. In this case, as in many others, Caesar showed himself 
a generous and merciful conqueror (see also introductory note to 
LII). Cicero, in the oration Pro Marcello, thanked Caesar for per- 
mitting Marcellus to return to Rome. 

coeptum sit : see G. 175. 5. a. and note; A. 205 and 205. a; B. 133 
and 133. I. 

de iure publico, * concerning constitutional authority.' 

nihil . . . aliud : that is, *' nothing except this one transaction." 

* acerbitate ' . . . aequitate : these words refer to Caesar's feeling 
concerning the respective attitudes toward himself of Marcellus 
and Sulpicius, during their consulship. 

ne — causa, *not even on account of his forebodings.' Caesar 
had heard of certain plots against his life, and might quite naturally 
associate Marcellus with them. 

Fecerat, ' had arranged ' (Shuckburgh). 

L. Pisone : L. Piso was Caesar's father-in-law. 

C. Marcellus : a cousin of the exile. He had been consul in 50, 
and probably took no part in the war. 

consurgeret . . . accederet: sec note on sed — concertarem^ 
XVIII. 2. 

ut — rei publicae : Caesar's spontaneous generosity led Cicero 
to hope that perhaps, after all, the dictator's regime would not prove 
so imperialistic as it had at first threatened to be. 

viderer videre : note the repetition. 

4. ante me : this must have been quite a shock to Cicero's vanity. 



NOTES 165 

rogati : sc. sentcntias. — The president of the senate (the magis- 
trate who called the meeting) invited the senators to speak in order 
of precedence. — For the case of sententiasy see G. 339, note 4 ; 
A. 396. b. and note; B. 178. 2. 

Volcacium : consul in 66. 

eo loco : that is, in Caesar's place. 

pristinae dignitatis : just a few years before this time Cicero would 
not have been called on last in the senate. 

Fregit : for the number, cf. note on postulate IV. 3. 

senatus officium, * the senate's display of devotion ' (Shuckburgh). 

itaque — gratias: in the oration for Marcellus (see note on 
Mar edit J 3). 

meque : me is object of privarim. — Note the unusual word-order 
in meque metuo ne (see G. 671-683; A. 595-599; B. 348-350). 

qui — tacerem : Cicero implies that, if he never arose to speak 
in the senate, Caesar might think he regarded the government as 
already a monarchy. 

modice . . . intra modum, * moderately ' . . . * within the bounds of 
propriety.' Shuckburgh renders, ' without transgressing the bounds 
of moderation ; or rather I shall keep some way this side of them.' 

hoc faciam : that is, speak in the senate. 

studiis, properly, * enthusiasms ' (or, * matters in which I am 
interested '). Cicero refers here to his literary work. 

philosophia : the majority of Cicero's philosophical works appeared 
in 45 and 44. 

et . . . et, ' both ' . . ^ * and.' 

maturitate . . . vitiis : cf. note on vitio^ 2. 

ad prudentiam, ' for wisdom.' 

6. noctes : winter was approaching, with its short business days 
and long evenings, and Sulpicius would then, Cicero implies, find 
more time for study. 

Servius tuus : Sulpicius' son. 

mansione : i.e., in Achaia. 

tuos, * your family.' 

nihil — Caesare: cf. note on nihil — poteraty XLVII. i. 

alterum utrum, * one thing or the other.' 

audire, * to hear (about).' 

tibi : cf . note on saluti, X. i . 

LVI. Ad Familiares 4. 14. Rome, January, 45. 

Cn. Plancio: cf. note on Plancius, XXIV. i. In 54, Cicero had 
defended Plancius, who was charged with bribery in seeking the 



1 66 CICERO^S LETTERS 

aedileship (the Or alio Pro Playicio). Plancius was exiled by Cae- 
sar, and was now living in Corcyra (cf. note on ut — tuum, 
XXXIV. i). 

1. Binas : for the use of the distributive instead of the cardinal 
numeral, see G. 97, remark 3; A. 137. b; B. 81. 4. b. 

quae egissem: the reference is to Cicero's divorce and remar- 
riage (see below, 3). 

bonis — sentias, * to make what you believe acceptable to good 
men/ 

re efficere, * actually to bring to pass/ 

libera — defendere: cf. note on nos — possumusj LV. 2. 

agiturque praeclare, ' and things are going well.' 

quae — f eramus : although Cicero indulged occasionally in op- 
timism, as, for example, in LV. 3, yet sober reflection never left 
any doubt in his mind as to the tendencies of Caesar's gradual usurpa- 
tion of powers which had formerly been in the hands of a number of 
elected magistrates. 

2. non nihil, ' somewhat.* — For the case, see G. 334; A. 390. c; 
B. 176. 3. 

consolatur : impersonal. 

haec : the Civil War and its results. 

disceptarettir : impersonal. 

quibus, * in that war ' {sc. armis). 

ii vicissent : the Pompeians. 

interitus : i.e., by the expected proscriptions of the conqueror. 
As a matter of fact, Caesar treated his enemies with the greatest 
clemency and generosity (see introductory note to LII and note on 
Marcellij LV. 3). 

amplissimorum . . . optimorum, * of high rank ' . . . ' of great 
worth.' 

me : subject of existimari. 

nimium timidum : Cicero had worked hard for peace, and had 
even gone so far as to interview Caesar on the subject (see intro- 
ductory note to L). 

3. eo, quod egeiim: Cicero obtained a divorce from Terentia 
during the latter part of the year 46, and shortly afterward he married 
the youthful Publilia, — solely for her money. — This section clearly 
refers to these two transactions; hence the date, 45, instead of 46 
(as given in the Teubner text). 

reditu meo : that is, after Caesar had pardoned him (see introduc- 
tory note to LII). The trouble had begun during his banishment 
(see note on quaedam domestical XXIX. 8) and had been aggravated 



NOTES 167 

by Philotimus' doings during the proconsulship in Cilicia (cf. note 
on TTjs — i^a(r<f>d\taaL, XL VII. 3). 

Quibus: dative with carissima ; its antecedent is eorww. 

me . . . muniendum, * that I must fortify myself.' 

necessitudinum, ' relationships.' The allusion is to his marriage 
with Publilia. 

4. ut ne : see note on ut . . . ne, XLV. i. 

status, * settled condition.' 

alteros . . . alteros: i.e., " the Caesarians " . . . " the remnants 
of the senatorial party." 

rei, famae, saluti : datives with praesto futurum. 

LVII. Ad Atticum 12. 15. Astura, March 9, 45. 

Appuleitim : Cicero had been a member of the College of Augurs 
since 53, and was now seeking to be excused from attending the 
inaugural ceremonies in honor of Appuleius (see also note on cena 
— Lentulunij XXX. 2). 

quoniam — placet: sc. me excusarij 'since you do not approve 
of a standing plea of ill-health ' (Shuckburgh). 

In hac solitudine : Cicero was in his villa on the island of Astura 
(a few miles south of Antium). Tullia, his beloved daughter, had 
died in childbirth, about a month before this letter was written, and 
his grief was overwhelming. 

Secundtim te, * next to you.' 

litteris, * books.' Cicero published a number of treatises during 
the year 45 (cf. note on philosophia, LV. 4). 

Bruto : M. Junius Brutus, who, a year later, was one of the 
murderers of Caesar. 

des : sc. epistulam. 

dabis : cf. note on silebis, IX. 3. 

LVin. Ad Atticum 12. 16. Astura, March 10, 45. 

accedam : sc. ad te. 

Etsi, * and yet.' 

nunc . . . ipsum, *at this very time.' See G. 311; A. 298. c; 
B. 249. I. 

tuae domi : Cicero had spent a few days in Atticus' home in Rome 
before going to Astura. 

probabatur : impersonal. Render, * it was not thought best.' 
Sc. esse. 

meae : sc. domi manere. 

propius : sc. Romae. 



1 68 CICERO'S LETTERS 

quod — impedit: Atticus' daughter, Pomponia, was ill. 
Philippus : Augustus' step-father, who owned a villa near Cicero's, 
scriptio et litterae : cf. note on liUeriSy LVII. 

LIX. Ad Familiares 4. 5. Athens, March, 45. 

Servius : see note on Ser. SulpiciOy LV, greeting. Sulpicius was in 
Athens at this time, while Cicero was still at Astura. 

1. sane — tuli, 'I grieved very deeply, — as was meet.' — Sane 
quam == 'very much indeed' (see G. 439, note 3, and 467, note; 

A. 575- d). 

qui : the antecedent is ego^ subject of the preceding verb. 

istic, * with you.' — TuUia died probably at her father's Tusculan 
villa. 

Etsi — est, 'and yet, such consolation is poor and pitiful.' — 
Sulpicius is fond of emphasizing a point by using two words which 
convey the same idea. There are several examples in this letter. 

confieri : confici occurs regularly. See G. 173, note 2; A. 204. c; 

B. 131, note. 

quam — praestare, * rather than to be able to offer their own 
sympathy to others.'- 

mihi: cf. note on tihi, XXII. i. 

non quo — existimem, * not that I think you are ignorant of my 
feelings.' — For the mood of existimem y see note on non quo faceret, 
XII. I. 

perspicias : this verb would be indicative but for forsitan. See 
G. 457. 2 and note; A. 447. a. 

2. intestinus, ' personal.' Sulpicius argues that the condition 
of the republic should cause Cicero infinitely more grief than a 
personal bereavement. 

nobis : cf . note on mihi, XIV. 

debent : for the mood, see G. 628, remark; A. 583 ; B. 314. 3. 

honoies, * public distinctions.' Caesar was dictator, imperatofy 
censor, consul, princeps senatus, pontifex maximus, and, in addition 
to all this, he enjoyed the tribunicia potestas (cf. note on tribunis 
pi. designatisy XIX. i). 

qui : cf. note on quod, XLIV. 2. 

in illis rebus : i.e., in the sufferings through which lovers of the 
republic had passed. 

callere, * to be hardened.' 

iam, ' ere this.' 

minoris : cf. note on quanti . . . tantiy XXXV. 2. 

existimare : Cicero would have used aestimare. 



NOTES 169 

3. illius vicem, * on her account.* See G. 334, remark 2 ; A. 
397. a. 

cedo, * pray tell me * (Tyrrell's emendation). — Cedo is an old im- 
perative form (plural ceUe)j compounded of the demonstrative 
particle -ce and da-. It therefore signifies literally, * give it,' * hither 
with it,* etc. (see the Lexicon). It occurs frequently in the comic 
drama, and also, as Tyrrell points out, in Cicero's " letters and in his 
other works " (see also note on qua . . . gwa, X. 3). 

necesse . . . veneris : see G. 553. 4, remark i ; A. 569. 2, note 2 ; 
B. 295. 8. Render, ' must you have come.' 

hisce temporibus, ' in times such as we live in.* — For hiscCf see 
G. 104, note I ; A. 146, note i ; B. 6. 3. 

non pessime — pactum, * those are not the least fortunate.' 

licitum est: licuit is the usual form (cf. note on essel licUunty 
XVII. 5). 

commutare, * to exchange.* 

ut — gereret: Tullia*s three matrimonial ventures all turned out 
unhappily. Her first husband died in young manhood, and she was 
divorced from the second and the third. 

primario, * distinguished.* 

credo, 'I suppose*; ironical. For this irony the note on ut — 
gereret accounts, in part ; in part, the explanation is in pro — putares. 

ex hac iuventute, * from our (worthless) youths.* 

ex sese pareret, * bring forth.* 

quos : logical object of laetaretur, grammatical object of videret. 

rem, * position.* 

honores ordinatim: see note on consulibusj III. i. 

Quid horum — ademptum sit: the meaning is, "even if TuUia 
had borne sons, they could never have attained such prominence as 
would have been pleasing to their grandfather, because of the 
downfall of the republic and the consequent repression of individual 
initiative.** 

At, ' but (you will say).* 

haec: i.e., " the present state of political affairs.** 

4. £x Asia : Asia Minor. 

ab Aegina : for the preposition, see note on ab Appi Foro, VII. — 
Aegina, an island in the Saronic Gulf (south of Attica), was, during 
the sixth century, the chief seat of Greek art, and was a prosperous 
and powerful little state. It was laid waste by pirates during the 
fourth century. 

Megaram : Megara was a city on the coast of Megaris. De- 
metrius Poliorcetes (king of Macedonia, 294-287) destroyed it in 307. 



lyo CICERO'S LETTERS 

versus: see G. 413, remark i ; A. 599. d; B. 141. 2. 

Piraeus : the seaport of Athens, destroyed by Sulla in 86. 

Corinthus : one of the largest and most important cities of ancient 
Greece. L. Mummius, consul in 146, defeated the army of the 
Achaian League during that year and absolutely destroyed 
Corinth. 

indignamur, * are indignant.' 

tot oppidum cadavera, * the corpses of so many cities.' — For 
the form oppidunij see G. 33. 4; A, 49. d; B. 25. 6. 

Visne . . . cohibere, * will you restrain.' — For this use of volo, 
see the Lewis and Short Lexicon, p. 2009, A. 3. d. 

Mode, * recently ' (i.e., during the Civil War). 

de imperio — Romani, * of the power of Rome.' . " The struggle 
between Caesar and Pompey had lessened the majesty of Rome, and 
weakened the sense of allegiance on the part of peoples dependent 
on her " (Abbott). 

in — facta est, ' if you have become the poorer' by the frail 
spirit of one poor girl ' (Shuckburgh). 

homo, * mortal.' 

6. perfunctam esse, * enjoyed.' 

hoc nomine, * on this account.' Cf. note on nomina se facturumy 
XXXV. I. 

noli . . . oblivisci : cf. note on noli vexarcj XXIII. 3. 

imitari : sc. veils. 

alienis, * of others.' 

tute : see note on tute^ XLIII. 3. 

6. te exspectare : cf . note on &va<f>aLp€(r6aL^ VII. 

ac non — occurrere, * and not go out to meet it in the strength 
of your wisdom.' Sulpicius urges Cicero to shorten the period of 
bitter mourning by philosophical reflection. 

Quodsi — sensus est, 'but if the dead yet possess consciousness.' 
On this point the Romans always spoke with reserve and hesitation, 
and it is quite certain that few, if any, thoughtful men of this period 
believed in the immortality of the soul. But Tyrrell has pointed out 
the fact that one of the works of Cicero which appeared soon after 
Tullia's death was the Tusculanae Disputationes, " in which he has 
collected whatever his learning or reflections could contribute to 
throw light on the condition of the soul after death." 

qui — amor, 'such was her love for you ' (lit., * what was,' etc.). 

hoc . . . hoc : the first hoc refers to long grief ; the second, to 
refraining from grief. 

possit : sc. patria, as subject. 



NOTES 171 

huic — serviendum est, * we must have due regard even for 
such a thing as this ' (t.e., noli committer e — lugere). 

aliorum : i.e., of Caesar and his adherents. 

victoriam lugere : cf. note on illud doleo, LIV. i. 

apisci : adipiscl is the usual form. 

aeque, * with equal self-possession.* There may possibly be a 
reproof here for Cicero's lack of courage and spirit during his banish- 
ment. 

neque — videri, * and that it does not appear to you a more 
grievous affliction than is meet.' 

haec una : sc. virtus; i.e., " fortitude in adversity." 

provincia : see introductory note to LV. 

LX. Ad Atticum 12. 32. Astura, March 28, 45. 

1. Publilia : cf. note on eoy quod egerim, LVI. 3. — Cicero's young 
wife was jealous of his love for Tullia, and, after her death, concealed 
so poorly her satisfaction that Cicero, enraged, sent her back to her 
mother and shortly afterwards divorced her. 

Publilio : Publilia's brother. He proposed to come with his 
mother in order to see that his sister's dowry was duly returned. 

se una : sc. venturam^ * and that she would come, too.* 

paterer: see G. 657; A. 589. a. 3; B. 319. 

mi : cf. note on wi, XXXIV. 2. 

gravius esse : " graviter est mihi is a very good phrase for * it 
goes ill with me,' that is, * I am in great distress of mind ' " (Tyrrell). 
Render mi etiam gravius esse, * that I was suffering even more now.' 
Cf. note on fuit enim periucimde, LXV. i. 

non esse ipsius, * is not hers.' That is to say, her mother had 
dictated the letter, probably hoping for a reconciliation. To be 
mother-in-law of the great Cicero was no mean distinction. 

una est vitatio, * there is only one way of escape.' 

nollem : sc. necesse esset; i.e., " I should prefer not to run away." 
— For the mood of nollem, see note on cuperem, IX. 4. 

ut ne opprimar, * and 1^ be caught ' (lit., * to avoid being caught '). 
For ut ne, cf. note on ut . . . ne, XLV. i. 

2. Ciceroni : young Cicero was preparing to go to Athens for 
study. See LXXI. 

sumptus huius peregrinationis, ' the expense of this trip.' 
domumque conduceret, * and were renting a house.' 
quod — cogitabat : shortly before this, young Cicero had expressed 
a desire to go to Spain with Caesar, or else to enjoy greater freedom 
and a more ample allowance in Rome (see Ad Att. 12. 7. i). 



172 CICERO^S LETTERS 

mercedes, * income * ; antecedent of quibus. 

Argileti et Aventini : i.e., Cicero's property on the Argiletum (a 
business street in Rome, occupied especially by booksellers) and the 
Aventine Hill. 

cum ei proposueris : sc. hoc, as object of the verb. 

moderere, * arrange.' 

Praestabo, * I'll wager.' 

Bibultim . . . Acidinum . . . Messallam : wealthy Roman 
youths. 

conductores, * tenants.* 

quanti : i.e., " how much they are paying." 

ad diem, ' promptly.' 

instrumenti, * outfit.* 

iiunento, * a carriage.' 

animadvertis, * remark ' ; i.e., in some previous letter. 

LXI. Ad Familiares 4. 6. Ficulea, April, 45. 

Cicero was now in Atticus' villa at Ficulea, a little Sabine town a 
few miles from Rome. — This letter is a reply to LIX. 

1. Ego vero : these words are usually employed to introduce a 
remark concerning some point in a previous letter, or in answer to a 
question. 

aliquantum: cf. note on non nihilj LVI. 2. 

non mediocrem — dolorem, ' your own keen affliction of spirit.* 

Servius tuus : see note on Servius tuus, LV. 5. 

officiis, * thoughtful deeds.' 

animum, * display of affection.' 

iucundiora . . . gratiora, * more productive of pleasure * . . . 
*more worthy of gratitude' (Abbott). 

auctoritas, ' the weight of your suggestions.' 

Q. Maximus: cf. note on * tmus — rew,' X. 2. 

consularem, * ex-consul.' 

L. Paullus : victor over Perseus of Macedonia in the battle of 
Pydna (168). 

vester Galus: C. Sulpicius Galus, consul in 166, and conqueror of 
the Ligurians. Vester may be rendered, ' your kinsman.' Galus 
belonged to the gens Sulpicia. 

M. Cato: M. Porcius Cato, surnamed the Censor (234-149), 
was one of the most striking and interesting figures of the republic, 
— the very . incarnation of the prisca virtus Romana. He was 
distinguished as a soldier, orator, author, and man of affairs. In an 
age when literary men were writing in Greek, he turned to the 



NOTES 1 73 

uncouth but vigorous language of his native land and laid the founda- 
tions of Latin prose. Only one of his numerous works has come 
down to us in complete form, — the De Re RusUcay — a practical 
treatise on farming. 

fuerunt, * lived.* 

ipsorum denotes the same persons as eorum. 

ea : with dignitas, * that distinction.' 

re publica, * service to the republic* 

2. omamentis, ' honors ' (mentioned by Sulpicius; see LIX. s). 
unum . . . solacitim : i.e.y Tullia. 

Non — perdidisse: "the men whom I have just mentioned were 
able to find consolation in active public service, but I have nothing 
to which I may turn for comfort." 

cogitationes, * (sad) thoughts.* 

curiam, * the senate-house.' The Curia Hostilia, near the forum, 
was the regular meeting place of the senate, but sessions might be 
held in any building duly sanctioned by auspices. For example, 
Cicero's first oration against Catiline was delivered in the temple of 
Jupiter Stator. 

id quod erat, * truly, too.' 

haec . . . ilia : these two pronouns refer to the same thing. 

quo — deponerem : these words were literally true. Tullia brought 
to her father the only true and unalloyed joy of his life. — For the 
mood of confugerem, conquiescerem, and deponerem^ see note on da- 
retur, XXIX. 7. 

ilia — recrudescunt : i.e., " the wounds which my pride and my 
devotion to the republic have suffered." 

non enim — adquiescam, ' for, formerly, when I turned in sadness 
from public duty, I had a home to receive and comfort me; but 
now I am unable to fly from my saddened hearth to the republic, to 
find peace in its prosperity.' 

levaret : cf , note on daretur, XXIX. 7. 

domesticum : sc. dolor em. 

3. ratio nulla, * no philosophical system * (Tyrrell). 
consuetudinis, * intimacy.' 

quamquam, * and yet (though your early coming might appear but 
a remote possibility).' 

ante : i.e., before Caesar's return from Spain. — He had conquered 
the last of the Pompeians at the battle of Munda, some three or four 
weeks before this letter was written. 

unius : Caesar. 

nee — alieni: Caesar had always been kindly disposed toward 



174 CICERO'S LETTERS 

Cicero. Of., e.g., note on libera legatioy IX. 3, and introductory note 
to LII. 

tibi amicissimi : Sulpicius had Caesar to thank for his procon- 
sulship (see note on Ser. SulpiciOj LV, greeting). 

ratio : here, * plan.' 

quiescendi : with ratio. Render, * of leading a quiet life.* 

LXII. Ad Atticum 13. 13. Arpiniim, June, 45. 

1. Varrone : cf. note on VarroniSy XII. i. Varro had sided with 
Pompey in the Civil War, and was magnanimously pardoned by 
Caesar and intrusted with the arrangements for a great public 
library which the dictator desired to establish. Varro, however, 
never finished the task, and the first public library was opened 
about eight years later by Asinius PoUio, the orator and histo- 
rian. 

Academiam : this treatise, on the theory of knowledge, appeared 
in two editions. In the first, which was in two books, Catulus and 
Lucullus were the speakers. At the time of this letter, Cicero had 
revised the treatise, had divided it into four books, and, on the advice 
of Atticus, had made Varro the chief speaker. — Of the first edition, 
Book II has come down to us ; of the second. Book I (incomplete) 
and fragments of the other books. 

hominibus nobilissimis : i.e., Catulus (cf. note on quae Catuli 
fueraty XXXIII. 2) and Lucullus (see note on /«, IV. i). 

nostrum sodalem : Varro. 

illi : i.e.y the former edition ; sc. libri. 

qui — velle : Varro had apparently expressed a desire to be in- 
cluded as an interlocutor in one of Cicero's philosophical works. — 
Qui — * how * (see G. 106, note 2 ; A. 150. b). 

quern . . . fnXorvireio-Oai, * of whom he is jealous.' 

Brutum : Cicero's treatise, De Finihus Bonorum et Malorum, just 
published, was dedicated to Brutus (see note on BrutOy LVII). 

Id — restabat, * by Heaven, that's the last straw ! ' (Shuck- 
burgh). 

communis <|>iXavTCa, * the conceit common to writers.' 

in tali genere, * in this department of literature.' 

ilia — descripta sunt : Atticus' copyists (see note on lihrariolisj 
XXXII. i) had been at work on the first edition of the Academics 
and had probably well-nigh completed their task. 

haec : i.e., the new edition. 

breviora, * more concise.' 

2. &iropd, ^ I' am in doubt/ 



NOTES 175 

Volo : sc. aliquid scribere. Dolabella had signified a wish that 
Cicero should dedicate some work to him. 

* alS^ofMit Tp«as/ ' I stand in awe of the Trojans ' {Iliad 6. 442). 
Dolabella was a Caesarian, and also a profligate. Cicero, therefore, 
quite naturally hesitated to grant him such recognition, for fear of 
offending his own friends. Further, Dolabella was associated, none 
too pleasantly, with Cicero's memories of TuUia. 

aliquid : sc. reperiam. 

(ii)i\|;iv, * reproach.' 

3. Attica : Atticus' little daughter, Pomponia (see note on quod — 
impedit, LVIII). 

Quae — angit, * I am extremely anxious about her.* 

novas : sc. litteras. 

LXIII. Ad Familiares 9. 8. Arpinum, July 11 or 12, 45. 

1. munus dagitare, * to demand a gift.' — Flagitare is complemen- 
tary infinitive, depending upon solet. 

quis : the indefinite pronoun (though not preceded by si^ nisij »e, 
or num; cf. note on quid, VI. i). 

ostenderit, * has promised.' — For the mood, see G. 606; A. 527. 
a; B. 309. I. 

promissi tui : Varro had promised Cicero, some two years before, 
to dedicate a work to him. Sometime later the De Lingua Latina 
appeared, and the last twenty books were, in fact, dedicated to 
Cicero. 

non ut, * not (however) to,' etc. 

quattuor admonitores : that is, the four books of the Academics 
(cf. note on 'Academianiy LXII. i). Cicero hoped that this treatise, 
in which Varro had so prominent a place, w5uld arouse the tardy old 
gentleman to the duty of keeping his promise. 

OS — Academiae, * the cheek of the New Academy.' That is, 
" the followers of this system of philosophy possess unbounded 
effrontery." The reference is to their denial of certainty (see note 
on iam — Selius, XLIV. i). 

ea . . . media: sc. Academia. 

excitatos : sc. probably adiutores or legatos. 

qui metuo ne : note the word-order. — For the antecedent of qui, 
see note on excitatos^ above. 

aliquid : i.e., " your work dedicated to me." 

accepissem : sc. a te. 

quam — munere, * by a gift as similar as possible.' 

diligentius: with consummate tact, Cicero ascribes Varro's 



176 CICERO'S LETTERS 

tardiness in fulfilling his promise to the great care he was bestowing 
on the work. 

quo — genere, * by such literary work as I was able to produce.' 

sermonem, * a dialogue.' Cicero employed this form in most of 
his philosophical works. 

Ctimano : Varro had a villa near Cumae. 

Pomponius: Atticus. That is, he, Cicero, and Varro are the 
interlocutors. 

partes Antiochinas, ' the arguments of Antiochus.' This phi- 
losopher, who founded what is sometimes called the Fifth Academy, 
departed somewhat from the skeptical attitude of the New Academy, 
and attempted to harmonize the teachings of Philo (see note on 
iam — SeliuSy XLIV. i) with the doctrines of the Stoics and of 
Aristotle (cf. note on Cratippo, LXXI. 3). — Antiochus had been 
one of Cicero's teachers while the latter was in Athens in 79-78. 

Philonis : sc. partes, 

locuti sumus: for the mood, see G. 628, remark; A. 583. a; 
B. 314. 3. 

morem dialogorum : that is, the interlocutors did not necessarily 
give the views which they actually held, but those of the particular 
school of philosophy which they were representing in the treatise. 

2. quam plurima, * we shall converse at length ' {sc. loquemur). 

si videtur, ' if it seems good to you.' 

sero, * at some later time.' 

sed — sustineat: i.e.," let the troublous times through which the 
state has passed be our excuse for not having previously enjoyed 
each other's companionship." — Note the chiasmus in temporum 
Fortuna rei p. causam (see note on nihil — nufnmulos suos, 
XLIX. 2). 

haec : i.e., " as for the present, we must be sure of the speedy 
beginning of that friendly intercourse which the confusion in the 
state has hitherto prevented." 

statu civitatis, * settled condition of the state.' 

vel, ' even.' 

rationes, * responsibilities.' That is, " if the republic were to be 
revived, you and I would probably reenter public life." 

his ipsis : sc. studiis. 

vix : that is, " life is hardly worth living." 

Migrationem et emptionem: we should say emptionem et migra- 
tionem, but logically migrationem is the more important idea, and 
hence it stands first. 



NOTES 177 

LXIV. Ad Familiares 7. 24. Tusculum, August, 45. 

M. Fadio Gallo : cf . note on Gallo, XXX, greeting. 

1. vestigia : sc. sunt. 

vel prozime, * for example, recently.' 

Tigellio : a Sardinian musician who enjoyed Caesar's favor in a 
marked degree. Fadius had feared that he was angry with Cicero, 
and had written to find out about the matter and to warn Cicero 
not to offend him, for fear of his influence on Caesar. 

amo, * I deeply appreciate.' 

Cipius : a certain man who was in the habit of feigning sleep when 
his wife's paramour visited his home. On one occasion, a slave, think- 
ing his master was really slumbering, attempted to abscond with the 
silverware. Cipius put a speedy end to his pretended sleep and 
apprehended the culprit, remarking, " I don't sleep for everybody's 
benefit ! " 

olim : sc. dixit. 

Non omnibus — seryio: that is, "I am ready to bow to the will 
of great Caesar, but I will not be slave to a minstrel, even though he 
be Caesar's friend." 

quae — servitus: the meaning is, "my present slavery is really 
not so bad." 

cum — ezistimabamur : i.e., during his consulship. 

observor, * I am kindly treated.' 

istum, * that fellow,' — Tigellius. 

in lucris, * in the profit column.' 

non ferre : sc. me. 

patria sua: Tigellius came from the island of Sardinia, which 
was known far and wide to be very unhealthful. 

etmique — praeconio, *one, moreover, who (as I take it) has been 
by this time quite knocked down as a cheap lot by the scazontic 
hammer of Calvus' (Tyrrell). 

Calvi Lidni: on the order, see note on in — Caniniy XXXVI. 4. 
— Gaius Licinius Macer Calvus was a member of the Alexandrine 
set in Rome (see note on multis — artisj XXXVII. 3). Cicero had 
very little patience with them, as a rule, but Macer had written a 
bitter satire on Tigellius which evidently pleased him mightily. 

Hipponacteo praeconio: the poem was in the form of an auc- 
tioneer's praise of his wares, and was written in scazons. This verse 
(sometimes called choliambic) is said to have been invented by Hip- 
ponax {floruit 530), the Greek iambic, or satiric, poet. See G. 764; 
A. 618. c, for this metre. — The first line of Macer's diatribe has 



1 78 CICERO'S LETTERS 

been preserved: Sardi Tigelli putidum caput venit. This Tyrrell 
renders, * for sale Tigelli us the Sardinian oaf.* 

2. Phameae : Tigellius' grandfather. 

receperam : the events narrated in this and the next few sentences 
probably occurred late in 52 or early in 51. See note on P. Sestio, 
below. 

ipsius causa : in Ad Att. 13. 49. i, Cicero says, " You may remem- 
ber that, during my consular campaign, he offered me his services 
through you." 

iudicem : see note on praetorem^ XXIX. 6. 

operam dare, * to hear the case ' (lit., * to give attention *). 

P. Sestio : one of Cicero's friends, whom the orator successfully 
defended in 56 on a charge of violence during his tribunate. The 
trial referred to here, however, occurred about four years later, 
and the charge wsls ambitus (* bribery '). See also note on Sesti, 
XXI. 2. 

in consilium iri, * to deliberate.' Shuckburgh translates, * the 
jury ' (were obliged) * to consider their verdict.' — Passive forms of 
eo are always used impersonally. 

me facere : that is, to appear for Phamea. 

nepotem: Tigellius. 

unctorem : the word means * anointer * and appears irrelevant 
here. Perhaps it suggests Tigellius' ability to spread flattery, and 
implies that that ability had landed him in his position as one of 
Caesar's favorites. — Some editors read cantorem. 

' Sardos — nequiorem': a proverb. * You have some Sardinians 
for sale, each more worthless than his fellow.' Sardinian slaves 
were hard to dispose of at Rome, for most of them were debilitated 
by the climate of their country (see note on patria sua^ i). 

causam, ' position.' 

salaconis, ' braggart.' 

* Catonem ' : a pamphlet on the life of Cato Uticensis (see note 
on Cato J LIII. 2). After his suicide, many such monographs were 
written, the opponents of Caesar praising, the Caesarians defaming, 
the dead philosopher. 

LXV. Ad Atticum 13. 52. Puteoli, December 19, 45. 

This letter, written from Cicero's villa at Puteoli (cf. note on 
Crater a, VI. 2), describes a visit from Caesar and a considerable 
number of his soldiers. 

1. O hospitem — djicTaji^TiTov, * O what a much-dreaded and yet 
not-to-be-regretted guest ! ' 



NOTES 179 

Fuit enim periucunde : i.e., Caesar's visit really proved delightful 
to Cicero. — This use of the adverb with sum is an instance of the 
employment of the verb to be as a. true verb (* to exist '), and not as 
a mere copula. Abbott has pointed out that " this usage is frequent 
in colloquial Latin of all periods." Examples are bene esty praesto 
fuity graviter est mihi (see note on gravius esse^ LX. i), etc. i 

secundis Satumalibus, * on the second day of the Saturnalia * 
(Dec. 18). Saturn's festival, which began Dec. 17 and lasted from 
three to seven days, was a time of general license and merrymaking 
in Rome. 

Philipptun : cf. note on PhilippuSy LVIII. 

triclinitun, * dining-room.' The word meant, at first, a couch 
running around three sides of a table. This was the usual arrange- 
ment in a Roman dining-room (cf. note on discubuimus , XLV. 4). 

hominum CIO CIO : sc. fueruntj — * two thousand men ' {hominum 
duo mUia). — The character CID is a corruption of the Greek phiy *. 
The Romans borrowed their alphabet from the West Greek, and the 
superfluous letters, phi, thela, and chi they employed as numerals. 
Theta, ©, was the origin of C = 100; chi, 4^ (later vL, X, L), became 
L = 50. 

postridie : Cicero knew that Caesar would visit him then. 

Barba Cassius : one of Caesar's retinue. 

custodes dedit : that is, to prevent the soldiers from overrunning 
Cicero's villa as they had Philippus'. 

Hie : Caesar. 

ad h. Vn : about one o'clock. 

rationes, * accounts.' Sc. subducebat (Tyrrell), — * was balancing 
up his accounts.' 

Balbo : see note on Balbo, XXXVIII. 2. 

Post — balnetun : sc. ivit. — Caesar was now in Cicero's house. 
There is no mention of his arrival, but this remarkably staccato 
letter was written, apparently, in haste and excitement, and Cicero 
simply neglected to refer to his guest's actual appearance on the 
scene. 

Mamurra : the allusion here is not clear. Mamurra had been with 
Caesar in Gaul, and it is possible that news of his death was brought 
to the dictator while in Cicero's villa. 

Unctus est : anointing and " rubbing down " regularly followed 
the bath in the toilet of the Roman gentleman. 

'EfUTiKTiv agebat, *he was taking emetics.* — This was quite com- 
mon among those who were in the habit of dining as sumptuously 
as the wealthy men of the period did. Under the empire, it was the 



i8o CICERO'S LETTERS 

habitual practice of gluttons to take emetics in order to be able to 
devour more food. 

dScAs, * freely.* 

opipare — apparate, *for the dinner was sumptuous and elegant.' 

* bene — libenter/ 

* Well-cooked, well-seasoned food, with rare discourse : 
A banquet in a word to cheer the heart' (Shuckburgh). 

These lines are from Lucilius (cf. note on reges odisse superboSj VI. i). 

bene cocto : sc. cibo. 

condito : from condire^ * to season.' 

2. ol iTipl a^6v, * those about him,' i.e.y his retinue. 

minus lautis, ' of lower rank.' 

lautiores, * the more noble.' 

homines visi sumus, * we seemed just good fellows (forgetting all 
our past hatred and suspicion).' 

^Amabo — revertere,' 'please come to see me again when you are 
passing this way.' — Amaho te is a polite phrase (corresponding to 
our * if you please ') which signifies, * I'll love you (if you do).' 

eodem ad me : this in full would probably be, eodem modo fac 
ad me venias. 

SirovSatov oiScv, * nothing of serious import,' i.e., no politics. 

^iX6XoYa, 'learned talk.' 

libenter fuit : cf. note on fuit enim periucundey i. 

ad Baias : for the preposition ad with names of towns, see G. 337, 
remark 4; A. 428. a; B. 182. 3. — For Baiae, see note on Cratera, 
VI. 2. 

hospititmi sive Itrio^aOfuCav, ' the account of my doings as host, 
or, rather, the story of my forced hospitality.* 

paulisper : sc. manebo. 

praeteriret : i.e., Caesar and his men. 

copia : sc. instructa est or se instruxit. 

dextra — equum, 'on the right and left of Caesar's horse,' — a 
sort of formal salute to Caesar's friend and supporter. 

hoc : sc. audivi. 

Nida : Nicias was a grammarian, and a friend of Cicero and Dola- 
bella. — For the form, cf. note on Niciaj XXXV. 4. 

LXVI. Ad Familiares 7. 31. Rome, February, 44. 

Curio : Manius Curius was a banker who made Patrae (see note 
on Tullius — Fratris F., XLVIII, greeting) his headquarters. Cicero 



NOTES i8i 

had written a letter of introduction and recommendation for him to 
Acilius, the new proconsul of Achaia (succeeding Sulpicius). 

1. Quod : object of consecutus est; render, * this.' 
officiis, ' kindnesses.' 

Acilio : see above, greeting. 

facile patior, * I don't mind very much.* 

2. Sulpici: see note on Ser. Sulpicio, LV, greeting. 
non multtim : cf . note on non nihil ^ LVI. 2. 

opus: see G. 406; A. 411. b; B. 218. 2. a-b. 
* nee — pedes ' : sc. haherent. 

vellem — haberent: see G. 532, note 3, and 546. i and note i; 
A. 563. b and 2; B. 296. i. 
exaniisse : from exaresco. 

Pomponius: cf. note on Graecos — ludos^ XXXVI. 3. 
*Nisi — Atticam/ * We only guard — a dwindling band — 

The ancient fame of Attic land ' (Shuckburgh). 
Ergo is tibi : sc. succedit. 
Veni : imperative. 
urbanitatis, ' wit.' 

LXVn. Ad Familiares 6. 15. Rome, March 15, 44. 

Basilo: L. Minucius Basilus, praetor in 45, and one of Caesar's 
assassins. He joined the conspirators because Caesar failed to 
assign him a province on the expiration of his praetorship. 

mihi gaudeo : that is, " since Caesar is dead, the republic may yet 
be saved." 

te amo: of Cicero's previous relations with Basilus practically 
nothing is known. 

LXVni. Ad Familiares 7. 22. Tusculum, June, 44. 

Trebatio: see note on C. Trebatium, XXXVIII. i. 
Inluseras, * you made fun of me.' 

inter scjrphos, * over our wine ' (lit., * among our cups '). 
controversiam, * a doubtful point of law.' 
possetne : cf. note on sitne, XXXIV. i. 

quod furtum — agere, * to bring suit lawfully for a theft committed 
•before (he came into possession).' 
furti: see G. 378; A. 352; B. 208. 
bene potus: that is, " somewhat wobbly." 
caput, * chapter ' (in some legal work). 
notavi — misi : i.e., Cicero came home from the evening's festivi- 



i82 CICERO'S LETTERS 

ties, looked up the point at issue, and had the results copied and 
sent at once to Trebatius. 

quod — dicebas, * which you said no one held.' 

Sex. Aelium, M\ Manilium, M. Bruttun : legal authorities of the 
second century. — M\ = Manius. 

Scaevolae : P. Mucins Scaevola, consul in 133, and one of the 
most distinguished of all Roman lawyers. Cicero had cited Scaevola 
and Manilius once before in a letter to Trebatius (see XLIII. 2). 

Testae : Trebatius himself. 

LXIX. Ad Atticum 16. 5. Puteoli, Jiily 9, 44. 

1. Brutus : see note on Bruto, LVII. The tyrannicide was now 
at his villa on the island of Nesis, between Naples and Puteoli. 
He and Cassius lingered in Italy several months after the Ides of 
March, apparently with no settled plan for future action. But 
early in 43, Brutus went to Macedonia as proconsul and Cassius to 
Syria (these provinces had been assigned to them by Caesar!). 
Although Cicero and other members of the old senatorial party 
begged them to return and oppose Antony, they refused. In 42 
Antony and Octavian defeated them at Philippi. Cassius died 
by the hand of his freedman and Brutus took his own life. 

*Tereo' Acci: *the Tereus of Accius.' Apparently there had been 
some hostile demonstration against Brutus during the performance 
of this play at the Ludi Apollinares^ and he had heard of it. — 
L. Accius (170-86) wrote tragedies, /aftw/oe praetextae (tragedies on 
strictly Roman subjects), a history of Greek and Latin poetry, etc. 
He was regarded as an author of great power by such a discriminating 
critic as Quintilian (35-95 a.d.). Only fragments of his works have 
come down to us. 

^Brutum' : one of Accius' praetextae (see above). Brutus thought 
the play during which the disturbance took place was the Brutus 
(which dealt with the expulsion of Tarquin the Proud), instead of the 
Tereus (a story from Greek mythology). — ** The outbursts against 
the assassins seem finally to have decided them to leave Italy " 
(Shuckburgh). 

commissione Graecorum, * the opening of the Greek plays' (cf. note 
onGraecos — ludos^ XXXVI. 3). — Kow commissio gets this meaning, 
one can see by thinking of proelium committerey * to join battle.' 

fefellit, * surprised.' 

quid — existimem : see XXXVI. 3. Cicero had probably ex- 
pressed frequently to Atticus his opinion on these farces. Such 
productions, of course, could not possibly appeal to a man whose 



NOTES 183 

aesthetic sensibilities were as finely developed as were Cicero's (cf. 
also note on Bacchis — locus ^ XXXV. 2). 

2. Quinttis : Quintus Cicero's son, mentioned above (see note on 
TuUius — Fratris F., XL VIII, greeting). He had played traitor to 
his father and his uncle by joining Caesar's party. 

plures : sc. dies. 

in eoque — faciebat: that is, his attitude toward Caesar. 

commutattis est totus : young Quintus apparently decided, after 
Caesar's murder, that he would best make peace with his family. 

scriptis meis quibusdam : Cicero was working on his De Officiis 
at this time, and may have read his nephew selections from it. 
It was addressed to his son, Marcus, whom, as Sihler points out, he 
was never to see again. 

perstiasisset, * had convinced.' 

se digntun . . . te: Atticus was young Quintus' maternal uncle 
{avunculus). 

se amares : for the use of se^ see note on ne — verterent^ XXXIX. i. 

Quodnisi: see G. 610, remark 2; A. 397. a; B. 185. 2. 

Dtud — ad Brutum: this act proved Cicero's confidence in the 
young man's change of heart as conclusively as anything he could 
have done. 

probatum est : sc. id, as subject. 

me — noluerit, * he did not even desire my guarantees.* 

complezus osculattisque : sc. eum. 

rogem, * make a request.' 

minus : to be construed with constanter. 

vel — potius, * or rather, most.' 

indicium, * resolution.' 

auctoritatem : subject of allaturam. 

3. 6|ioirXo(^, * our joint departure ' (for Greece). Cicero was 
planning at this time to leave Italy for a while, but subsequent polit- 
ical developments caused him to abandon the trip. 

|iCTc«»p6r€pov, * somewhat disturbed in spirit.' 

de ludis: cf. note on *Tereo* Acci, 1. 

Cn. Lucceius : one of Cicero's friends. 

non tergiversantem, * not from any change in his purposes.* 

Venusiam : cf . introductory note to LII. 

tendam . . . exspectem : cf . note on quern ad modunty I, and see 
also G. 457. 2; B. 300. 5. 

de legionibus : that is, " news about the legions." Caesar had 
stationed certain legions in Greece, and they were now returning, 
under Antony's auspices, to strengthen his already great power. 



1 84 CICERO'S LETTERS 

Si aberunt, * if they fail to put in appearance.' 

Hydruntem: Hydrus, or Hydruntum, was a port about fifty 
miles south of Brundisium. Cicero was unwilling to risk meeting 
Antony's troops by embarking at the latter port. 

neutrum : that is, neither Brundisium nor Hydrus. 

d<r^aX^, ' safe.' 

eodem : i.e., to Puteoli. 

erubesco : i.e.y for planning to flee from the increasing danger. 

4. O dies — descriptos, * how characteristically has Lepidus 
announced the day for his installation into office ! ' — M. Aemilius 
Lepidus,. later a member of the Second Triumvirate, had himself 
elected (illegally) pontifex maximus after Caesar's death. — There 
is, of course, a pun on Lepidi lepide. 

reditus nostri : Nov. 29 was the day set for the inaugural cere- 
monies, and Cicero planned to return from Greece in time to be 
present. 

foirt|, * incentive.' 

te : sc. videamus. 

Sed — putabis, * but (do) as you shall think best.' 

6. Nepotis : Cornelius Nepos {circ. 100-25), the biographer. 
According to Gellius (cf. note on VarroniSj XII. i), Nepos wrote 
a life of Cicero. We have his life of Atticus in the De Viris Illus- 
tribus. 

meonim : sc. librorum. 

qui — putet: Nepos cared nothing for philosophy. 

Yavpio : * I pride myself.' 

* JUT d|jiv|Mva * : two words from Odyssey 1 1 . 469-470. Shuck- 
burgh renders the two lines thus : 

" in form and face 
Ajax the flower of all the Grecian host 
Next to the flawless son whom Thetis bore." 

* d|i.<i|ji(i>v,' * the flawless one,' — Achilles. 

* ai&ppoTos,' * immortal.' That is, " he is a great writer, but 
you are greater." As a matter of fact, Nepos had so many faults 
that he can by no means be called great, and it is quite possible that 
Cicero's reference to him as ** immortal " is ironical. 

a-vva^fayf\, 'collection.' — Most of Cicero's epistles were written 
with no thought of their future publication, The collection which we 
have was made after his death by Atticus and Tiro (see introduction, 
section 2). 

instar, * about.' See G. 373; A. 359. b; B. 198. 2. 



NOTES I 85 

a te — sumendae : Atticus kept carefully all of Cicero's letters 
to him. 
edentur, * shall be published.* 

LXX. Ad Familiares ti. 28. Rome, August, 44. 

Matius : C. Matius Calvena, one of Caesar's most devoted friends. 
His grief at the murder of the dictator was so poignant, and his 
enmity toward the murderers so bitter, that Cicero had criticized 
him harshly. On learning from Trebatius that this criticism had 
wounded Matius deeply, Cicero wrote him a very carefully worded 
but somewhat insincere letter of explanation {Ad Fam. 11. 27). 
This truly noble epistle is Matius' reply, and its frankness and sin- 
cerity stand out in sharp contrast to the polished phrases and 
hollow platitudes of Cicero's letter. 

1. ex tuis litteris : Cicero was at his Tusculan villa, 
quam : antecedent of opinionem. 

quia — aestimabam : sc. opinionem. 

plurimis — artibus, * many engaging qualities.* 

tibi — potuisse, * that you could have been persuaded to believe 
anything too hastily.' — For the construction' tihi . . . persuaderi, 
cf . note on matrimonio et famae, XVII. 3. 

in quern : equivalent to cum in te. 

propensa, * sincere ' (lit., * hanging down,* — * weighty '). 

criminibus, * accusations.* 

quibus : indirect object of restitisti. 

par, * fitting.* 

bonitate . . . amidtia: ablatives of cause (or motive). See 
G. 408; A. 404. b; B. 219. 

2. Nota — sunt = audivi. 

contulerint, * charged.' — The indicative would be regular here. 
The construction is a sort of confusion of relative clause and indirect 
question. — The subject of the verb is the indefinite, * they,* as in 
* they say.* Cf. also dant, below. 

patriam — praeponendam esse: that is, "if Caesar*s death was 
a fortunate thing for the state, good citizens should not grieve.*' 

vicerint, * established the fact that.' — The accusative and in- 
finitive construction follows, since the verb, in effect, = ostendo or 
demonstro. 

Sed — astute, * but I will not quibble.* 

fateor — pervenisse : that is, " I still place true friendship above 
love for the republic.** 



1 86 CICERO'S LETTERS 

neque — secutus: "I deprecated the war, and did not follow 
Caesar as my commander, but as my friend." 

re, * at his policies.* 

summe, * extremely.' 

hominis necessarii, * my dear friend.' 

praemiis : object of sunt abusi. 

reliqui, * other men.* 

minus — possent, * although their influence with him was less 
than mine.' 

lege Caesaris : cf . note on aeslimationesy LIII. 4. 

remanserunt in civitate : i.e., unless Caesar had permitted debtors 
to settle with their creditors by transfer of land, many would have 
been driven out of the country for non-payment. 

3. omnis . . . incolumls : accusative plural. 

cum praesertim — fuerint, * particularly since those same men 
were responsible for the bitterness against him, and for his death.' 
The reference is especially to Brutus and Cassius, both of whom 
Caesar had treated with the utmost kindness and had advanced 
politically (see note on Brutus ^ LXIX. i). This preferment of 
Caesar's opponents (both Brutus and Cassius had been Pompeians) 
had excited the envy of his friends, and his former enemies proved to 
be enemies still by forming and carrying out the plot against his 
life. 

invidiae . . . ezitio : datives of purpose (or service). 

Plecteris, * you will be severely criticized.' 

factum nostrum : i.e., the assassination. 

inpunite : rare. Inpune (or impune) is the usual form. 

quae, * (feelings) which.' — Qtiae is direct object of extorquere. 

dictitant, * keep on saying.' — See G. 191. i ; A. 263. 2; B. 155. 2. 

* libertatis auctores ' : Cicero refers to the conspirators as 
liberatores. 

nobis : cf . note on mihi, XIV. 

extorquere, * to tear from.* 

4. quid, * why? ' 

eos sui facti : cf. note on consili — te, LV. 2. 

At, * but (you will say).' 

pro civili parte, * as a good citizen.' 

me cupere : accusative and infinitive with probat. 

reliqua, * for the future.' 

5. ut — ducas, *that you consider fact as preferable to mere 
talk.' 

expedire — fieri, * it is best that the right be done.' 



NOTES 187 

quod — praestiti, * the principles for which I stood.' 

aetate praecipitata, * now that my life is drawing to its dose ' 
(Shuckburgh). 

commutem : cf . note on quid . . . invitemj VIII. 2. 

quod displiceat : sc. cuiquam. 

Quodsi — ezistimarer : that is, "if I rejoiced at Caesar's death 
(as you do, whether you admit it or not), I should confess it openly, 
even to his friends." 

facerem : cf. note on sit, LV. 2. 

6. ludos : Caesar had vowed these games to Venus Victrix after 
defeating Pompey at Pharsalus. They were celebrated in July, 44, 
by Octavian, Caesar's grand-nephew and heir, who became, in 27, 
the first emperor of Rome. 

victoriae : genitive, depending upon ludos. 
curavi, * I superintended.' 
quod : object of praestare. 
etiam mortui, * even though he were dead.* 
spei : cf. note on generis, II. 2. 
Caesare : see note on Academia, II. 2, for the case. 
petenti agrees with adulescenti. Render, * when he asked it.' 
Matius had superintended the games at Octavian's request. 

7. Veni : cf . note on at, 4. 

Antoni : M. Antonius (Mark Antony), who was consul with Caesar 
in 44 (see also note on in nuntiis Brundisinis, XLIX. i),-and who, 
after Caesar's death, pronounced a funeral oration over his body 
and also possessed himself of the dictator's papers and much of his 
private property. Late in 44 he had a bill passed by the cotnitia 
centuriata granting him Cisalpine Gaul (as his province), in spite of 
the senate's opposition. He marched north and besieged Decimus 
Brutus, the regularly appointed governor of the province, in Mutina. 
The senate declared Antony an enemy and sent Octavian against him. 
The decisive battle was fought near Mutina in April, 43, and Antony 
was defeated. Shortly afterwards, however, he and Octavian met, 
adjusted their diflferences, and organized, with M. Lepidus, the 
Second Triumvirate (for Lepidus, see also note on dies — de- 
scriptos, LXIX. 4). 

auferendi : sc. aliquid, * of carrying off something,' that is, " of 
winning some favor." 

ventitare : cf. note on die tit ant, 3. 

Sed quae — diligam, 'but what insolence is this, that those who 
have snatched my friend away from me should attempt by their 
carping criticism to prevent my loving whom I choose, while Caesar 



1 88 CICERO'S LETTERS 

never interfered with any of my intimacies, not even in the case of 
men whom he himself did not love ? ' 

quod, *a thing which/ referring to ne — diligam. There is a want 
of sequence (anacoluthon) here. The antecedent of quod^ (the ex- 
pected) idf never comes. Matius started to say, ** What Caesar 
never interfered with — my loving whom I pleased — that these 
fellows are trying to prevent." 

quibus vellem : sc. uti. 

eos — conari: infinitive clause, in apposition with adrogantia, 

diligam : the subjunctive here expresses purpose, not result. 

8. parum valitura sit, * shall have too little strength.' 

non malint habere : that is, " sober thought will convince Caesar's 
murderers that faithful friendship, such as mine was, is preferable 
to the treacherous fawning which characterized their relations with 
their victim. They will, therefore, seek friends like me rather than 
like themselves." 

Rhodi: Rhodes, an island off the coast of Asia Minor. The 
Rhodians had sided with Caesar in the Civil War. 

recte fieri: cf. note on expedire — fieri, 5. 

Trebatio : cf . introductory note to this letter. 

quod — fecit, * because he made it incumbent upon me to cherish 
and admire still more — and justly, too — a man for whom my affec- 
tion has always been a source of happiness.' 

quo . . . deberem : cf. note on paeniteret, XXXVI. 6. 

LXXI. Ad Familiares 16. 21. Athens, July-October, 44. 

Cicero F. = Cicero filius. He had been in Athens for more than a 
year, ostensibly for the purpose of study. In reality, however, he 
had been enjoying life a great deal and studying very little. Cicero 
seems to have threatened to go to Athens himself in order to investi- 
gate the situation (cf. note on 6/ioirXof^, LXIX. 3), and the young 
man immediately decided that he would best reform, at least on 
paper. Hence, this letter. 

Tironi: cf. note on Tullius — Fratris F., XLVIII, greeting; and 
on desiderium tui, XLVIII. i. 

1. tabellarios, * letter-carriers.' 

post — sextum : letters could usually be carried from Rome to 
Athens in about half this time. Abbott suggests that perhaps 
young Cicero had postponed his reply to the last letter from Italy 
so long that he thought it necessary to invent some plausible 
excuse ! 

cepissem : for the mood, see note on cum — probavissem, LV. 2. 



NOTES 189 

cumttlum — attulerunt, * filled the cup of my joy.' 

intercapedinem — fecisse, * that I failed to write* (lit. * that I 
made an interval of writing '). 

fructum — litterarum: Tiro had probably pleaded the young 
man's cause with Cicero and had written of his success. 

excusationem : i.e., " for my previous tardiness in writing." 

2. Gratos — esse: non duhito is here equivalent to scio or pro 
certo kabeo. 

qui — adfenintur: that is, "since my father threatened to come 
to Athens." — For the position of rumoreSy see note on quihus — 
probarentj XXXIII. 2. 

facias Ucet : cf. note on rideamus licet, XLIII. i. 

velles : cf. note on cepissetn, i. 

successa, * turn out well.* — The active use of the passive parti- 
ciple of succedo is rare. 

commodorum, * blessings.* 

3. praestabo, ' I shall guarantee.* 

Cratippo: Cratippus, one of young Cicero's teachers in Athens, 
was a leader of the Peripatetic or Aristotelian school of philosophy. 
Aristotle (384-322) taught that reason and philosophy were the 
sutnmum bonum, since they approached the nature of the Divine 
Reason (his conception of Deity). 

audio illtun, ' I listen to his lectures.' 

amplector, * I find great pleasure in.' 

saepentunero, ' again and again.* 

obrepit, * he drops in.* 

4. Bruttio : Bruttius was another of young Cicero*s teachers. 
frugi, * frugal.* — See G. 85. C, and 90; A. 122. b, and 129; B. 70. 

6, and 72. 

turn — convictio, * but also his companionship is very delightful.* 

non est enim : sc. ei. 

^iXoXoyC^, * grammatical studies.* 

cpvItj-Hjo-ci, * philosophical discussions.' 

Huic : construe with in proximo. 

ex meis angustiis, * with my poor pittance * (Shuckburgh). This 
is jSL very tactful way of saying, " please inform my philosophical 
father that I am helping to support a poor teacher out of my slender 
means, and tell him that an increased allowance would be greatly 
appreciated.** — As a matter of fact, yoilng Cicero was well supplied 
with funds (see LX. 2). 

5. Cassitun : a teacher of declamation. 
Mitylenis : cf. note on Marcelli, LV. 3. 



190 CICERO'S LETTERS 

Epicrates : nothing is known of him. 

Leonides : Marcus' tutor, who sent reports from time to time to 
his father. 

Td |ji€v — Td8€, * that's my present status.' 

6. Gorgia : Gorgias was a rhetorician who exerted such an un- 
wholesome influence on young Cicero that his father, on learning of 
it, ordered his immediate dismissal. 

Siapp^ST^v, * quite definitely.' 
Tergiversari, * to evade his orders.' 
o-irovSt], * zeal (in Gorgias' behalf).' 

suspicionem : that is, " that I really enjoyed associating with a 
man of Gorgias' type." 
ei = meo patri. 
mihi succurrebat, ' it occurred to me.* 

7. praedium, * a farm.' 

hoc loco : that is, " at the end of my letter." 

Habes : sc. rem, * you are a landed proprietor * (or, perhaps, 
colloquially, * you're in for it now ! '). 

vilico, * your superintendent.' 

lacinia : * a corner ' or * fold ' (of the outer garment). 

semina : just as farmers now save the seeds of excellent melons, 
etc., for planting. 

rem, * cash.' 

turn : i.e., when Tiro was buying his farm. — " I'm such a wealthy 
man myself that, if I had been on hand, you could have drawn freely 
from my abundance I" 

fortuna : sc. sublevatura sit. 

8. quod: sc. id. Abbott remarks, "The stereotyped character 
of the introductory phrase with de is shown here by its lack of 
influence upon the construction of the rest of the sentence." 

librarius, * secretary.' 

hjTpomnematis, * lecture notes.' — The Greek noun, {nrdfivrj/m, 
from which this word is derived, belongs to the third declension; 
but in Latin, such nouns frequently have -is instead of -ibus in the 
dative and ablative plural. 

(rv|M^iXoXoY€tv, * to discuss learned subjects.' 

Anterum : the slave who brought the letter. 

LXXII. Ad Familiares 9. 24. Rome, February, 43. 

Paeto : cf . note on Paeto, LIII, greeting. 

1. Rtifum : this letter gives us all we know about him. 

magnae — fuisse: Rufus had written to Paetus concerning some 



NOTES 191 

plot against Cicero of which he had heard, and Paetus had sent 
Cicero the letter {ex illius — missis). — Antony, smarting under the 
orator's Philippics, was gradually drawing the net about his enemy, 
and finally had him murdered on December 7 of this year. 

litteris : construe with congruentes. 

aliae : sc. liUerae. 

Aquini : cf. note on Aquini, XLV. 3. 

Fabrateriae : a small town in Latium, on the Via Latina. 

consilia — de me : i.e., by the friends of Antony. 

quam — essem facturus: that is, "on account of my bitter 
Philippics and my strenuous support of the military measures which 
the senate is taking against Antony " (see note on Antoni, LXX. 7). 

Quod : object of suspicans. 

iste tuus amicus : Ruf us. , 

Sed haec hactenus, * so much for that ' {sc, dicantur; lit., * so far 
let this be said*). 

2. itare : cf. note on dictitant, LXX. 3. 
desisse : for desiisse (from desino). 
nesdo quid, * somewhat.* 

quod solebas : sc. facer e. 

cenulas facere, ' to give little dinners.' This phrase is explanatory 
of illud, quod solebas. 

cimi — imitarere : that is, "when well-known epicures such as 
Hirtius and Dolabella were accessible " (cf. note on tu istic — 
Hirtiano, LIII. 3). 

non multum proficiebas, * you made so little headway ' (ironical, 
of course). — With proficiebas, sc. te (lit., ' you made yourself for- 
ward '). 

Spuruma : Spurinna Vestritius, the soothsayer who warned 
Caesar to " beware the Ides of March." 

vitam, * manner of living.' 

Favonius, * the west wind ' (called Zephyrus by the Greeks). 
It usually began to blow early in February (cf. Horace, Carmina 
I. 4. i). 

hoc tempore — posse, ' (he said) you might be able to stand it 
now ' (lit., * it might be borne at this time '). 

si forte — posses: that is, "if the cold is unbearable, you might 
begin even now to warm yourself up by resuming your luxurious 
living." 

3. extra iocum : Cicero's words about the dire prophecies of 
Spurinna were, of course, spoken in jest. 

tui: for the case, see G. 375; A. 349. b; B. 204. i. a. 



INDEX TO PROPER NAMES 



Roman numerals refer to the Letters as nimibered in this edition; Arabic numerals 
to sections of Letters. 



Acdus: XXXVI. 2, LXIX. i. 
Aesopus : X. 3, XXXVI. 2, 4. 
Afranius: XXIX. 6, LIII. 2. 
Alexander: XVI. 
Ambiorix : XL. i, XLIII. 2. 
Andronicus: XXXVI. 2. 
Antiochus: LXIII. i. 
Antony : XLIX. i, LXIX. i, 3, LXX. 

7, LXXn. I. 
Aratus: XXXVIL 3. 
Ariovistus: XX. i, XXXVHI. 3. 
AristoUe: LXm. i, LXXI. 3. 
AtiUus:XLV. 2. 
Atticus: I, II. 2, III. 2, V. 2, VI. i, 

IX. I, X. I, s, XV, XVIII. I, XXI. 

1-2, XXII. 1-2, XXIII. I, XXV, 

XXVIII, XXIX. I, 3, XXXI, 

XXXII. 1-2, XXXIII. 2-3, XXXIV. 
I, XXXVII. 3, XLV. 2-3, LVIII, 
LXI, introd., LXII. 1-2, LXIII. i, 
LXIX. I, 5. 

Augustus: III. 2, XXIX. 7, LVIII, 

LXIX. I, LXX. 6-7. 
Avianius: XXXV. i. ' 

Balbus : XXXVIH. 3. 
BasUus: LXVII. 
Bibulus: X. 2, 5. 
D. Brutus : LXX. 7. 
M. Brutus: LVII, LXII. i, LXIX. i, 
LXX. 3. 

Caecilius : X. 5, XXII, greeting, 2. 
CaeUus (Caldus) : XLVII. i, XLVIII, 

introd. 
Caelius (Rufus) : XLVI. 1-2. 
Caesar (C. Julius) : III. 2, IV. i, VI. i, 

IX, 2-3, X. 1-5, XIX. I, XX. I, 

XXXIII. 1-2, XXXVIII, greeting, 
1-3, XL. 1-2, XLII. I, 3, XLV. 2, 



XLVIII. I, XLIX. 1-2, L, LI, LII, 
LIII. 1-2, 4, LIV. 3, LV. 2-4, LVI. 
1-2, LVII, LIX. 2, 4, LXI. 3, LXII. 

1, LXIV. 1-2, LXV. 1-2, LXVII, 
LXIX. 1-4, LXX, introd., 2-3, 6-8, 
LXXII. 2. 

Caesar (L. Julius) : III. i. 

Calvus: LXIV. i. 

C. Cassius : LXIX. i, LXX. 3. 

Q. Cassius: XLIX. i. 

Sp. Cassius: DC. 2. 

Catiline: III. i, IV. i, V. i, X. 4, 

XII. I, XXIII. 2, LXI. 2. 
Cato (Censor) : LIII. 2, LXI. i. 
Cato (Uticensis) : XXIX. 7, L, LIII. 2, 

LXIV. 2. 
CatuUus: XXX VH. 3. 
Catulus: XXXIII. 2, LXII. i. 
M. Cicero : passim. 
M. Cicero (fiHus): III. i, XVII. 3, 

XXIII. 4, LX. 2, LXIX. 2, LXXI, 

introd., 1-7. 
Q. Cicero : V. 1-2, IX. 3-4, X. i, XIX. 

2, XXXIII. I, XXXVII. 1-3, XL. I, 
XLV. 3-4, XLVIII, introd., L, 
LXIX. 2. 

Q. Cicero {filius) : LXIX. 2. 

Cincius: I, XXXL 

Cipius: LXIV. i. 

Claudius : XI. 3. 

Clodia : XI. 3, XXVII. 2. 

Clodius: III. i, VI. i, IX. 3, X. i, 4, 
XL 3. XIII, XV, XVII. I, XVIII. 
1-2, XIX. I, XXIII. I, XXIV. 2, 
XXVII. 2, XXVIII, XXIX, introd., 
I, 6-7, XXXIII. 2, XXXVIII. I, 3. 

Constantine: XIX. i. 

Crassipes: XXXIII. 3, XLVII. 2. 

Crassus: XXIII. 2. 

Cratippus : LXXI. 3. 



1 Some unimportant names are omitted. 



193 



194 



INDEX TO PROPER NAMES 



Curio: VI. I, XVin. 2. 
Curio (Adulescens) : VI. i, IX. i, X. 
3, XXII. 2. 

Damasippus: XXXV. 2. 
Demetrius (PoUorcetes) : LIX. 4. 
Dionysius (libertus) : XLI. 2. 
Dionysius (/yra»nw5) : LIII. i. 
DolabeUa: XLVII. 2. L, LIII. 1-2, 
LXU. 2, LXV. 2, LXXII. 2. 

Empedocles: XXXVII. 4. 
Ennius: X. 2, XXXIX. i. 
Epicurus: XXXI. i. 

Fabius (Cunctator) : X. 2. 

Fadius: XXX, greeting, XXXV. 1-4, 

LXIV. I. 
Favonius: XXIX. 7. 

Gellius: XH. i, LXDC. 5. 
Gorgias: LXXI. 6. 
Ti. Gracchus: IX. 2, 

Hannibal : IV. 3. 

ffiero: XXIII. 2. 

Hipponax: LXIV. i. 

Hirtius: LIII. 1-3, LIV. 2, LXXII. 2. 

Horace: LII, LXXII. 2. 

Hortensius: XII. i. 

Juba: VI. i. 

Laclius: IV. 3. 

Laenius: XVII. 1-2. 

Lentulus: II. 2, XXIV. 2, XXVI, 

XXVII. 1-2, XXX, introd., 2. 
Lepidus: LXIX. 4, LXX. 7. 
Lepta: XXXVIII. 2. 
Livy: VL i, XXIX. 6. 
Lucilius: VI. i, LXV. i. 
Lucretius: XXXVII. 3-4. 
LucuUus: IV. i, XXXII. i, LXH. i. 

Maecius: XXXVI. i. 
Manilius: XLIII. 2. 
C. Marcellus: LV. 3. 
M. Marcellus : LV. 3-4. 
Marius : XXXVI, greeting, 1-3. 
Matius: LXX, introd., 2, 6, 8. 
Messalla (M. Valerius) : XXIII. 2. 
Messalla (M. Valerius Niger) : XXIX. 
6. 



Mesdnius: XLVII. i. 
Messius: XXIX. 7. 
MeteUus (Celer) : XXVII. 2. 
Metellus (Nepos) : XVUI. i, XXIV. 2, 

XXVII. 2.' 
Milo : XXXVIII. 3, XLV. 2, XLVII. 3. 
Mucius (Scaevola) : XLUI. 2, LXVIII. 
Mummius: LIX. 4. 

Naievius: XXXVI. 2. 
Nepos : I, X. 5, LXIX. 5. 
Novius: XXXVL3. 

Octavianus: see Augustus. 
Oppius: XLV. 2. 

C. Pansa: XLIV. i. 

L. Pansa : XXXVII. 2. 

Papirius (Paetus) : LIII, introd., i, 3, 

LIV. I, 3. LXXIL I. 
Pasiteles: II. 2. 
PauUus: LXI. i. 
Perseus: LXI. i. 
Phamaces: LI. 
Philo : XLIV. i, LXHI. i. 
Philotimus: XXIX. 8, XLVH. 3, 

LVI. 3. 
PiUa : XXXII. 2, XXXIII. 3, XLVII. 

3. 
C. Piso : XVII. 3, XXIII. 2, XXIV. i, 

XXXIII. 3. 
L. Piso: XXrV. i. 
Plancius: XVII. i, XXlV. i, LVI, 

introd. 
Plato : II. 2. 

PUny (the Eider) : VI. 2, XXXVI. 3. 
PolUo: LXII. I. 
Pompey: IV. 1-3, IX. 2, X. 1-3, XI. 

2, XIX. I, XX. I, XXIII. 2, XXIV. 

2, XXIX. 6-8, XXXIII. 1-2, 

XXXVI. 1-4, XXXVIII. I, XLIX. 

1-2, L, LIII. 2, LIX. 4, LXII. I. 

LXX. 6. 
Pomponia : XLV. 3-4. 
Pomponius: XXXVI. 3. 
Pomptinus: XLV. 5. 
Publilia: III. i, LVI. 3, LX. i. 
Pyrrhus: XVI. 

Quintilian : LXIX. i. 

Roscius : X. 3. 



INDEX TO PROPER NAMES 



195 



St. Jerome: XXXVH. 3. 
St. Paul: XLVII. i. 
Sallust: Xn. i. 
SaUustius: XXXVII. 4. 
Satuminus: XV. 
Scipio (Africanus Minor) : IV. 3. 
Scipio (Metellus) : LIII. 2. 
Selius: XLIV. i, LXIII. i. 
Sestius: XXI. 2, XXII. 3, LXIV. 2. 
Sicca: XV, XVII. i, LI. 
Sophocles: XXXIV. i. 
Spurinna: LXXII. 2-3. 
Statius: IX. 4, X. i, XLV. 3. 
SuUa: XVIII. i, XXIX. 6, LIX. 4. 
Sulpidus (Galus) : LXI. i. 
Sulpidus (Rufus) : LV, introd., 1-5, 
LIX, introd., 1-2, 6, LXI. 3. 

Tadtus: XXIX. 6. 

Tarquinius (Superbus) : LXIX. i. 

Tenes: XXXVII. 2. 

Terence : X. i, XLIII. 4. 

Terentia: UI. i, XIV, XVU. i, 3-4, 



6, XXIII. 2-3, XXIX. 8, XXXV. 4, 
XLVII. 3, L, LI, LII, LVI. 3. 

TigeUius: LXIV. 1-2. 

Timoleon: LIII. i. 

Tiro: XLVIII, introd., i, 3, LXIX. 5, 
LXXI. I, 7. 

Trebatius: XXXVIII. i, 3, XXXIX, 
greeting, 2, XLII. i, XLIII. 2-3, 
XLIV. 1-2, XLVI. I, LXVIII, LXX, 
introd. « 

TuUia: VI. 2, XVII. 3, XXII. i, 
XXIII. 2, 4, XXXIII. 3, XXXV. 4, 
XLVII. 2, L, LVII, LIX. I, 3, 6, 
LX. I, LXI. 2, LXII. 2. 

Tyrannio : XXXII. i, XXXIV. 2. 

Valerius (Flaccus) : XII. i. 

Varro: XII. i, XX. i, XLL i, LXH. 

I, LXIII. I. 
Verga : XXXVI. 2. 
Vettius: XXXIII. 2. 

Zeno: XXX. i. 



INDEX TO THE NOTES 



ab with names of towns : VII, LIX. 4. 
abbreviations of verb forms : I, 11. 2, 

IV. 3, V. I, XVII. 3. 
ablative : 

degree of difference : II. i, IV. 3, VII. 

with dignus : II. 2, XXIX. 2. 

absolute: III. i, XVIII. i. 

with optts: III. 2, VI. i. 

Vfithfretus: IV. i. 

with laetor: IV. 2. 

agent: V. i. 

specification : VI. i, XVII. 3. 

with adjectives of freedom and 
want: VI. i. 

time when: VII, VIII. i. 

manner: X. i, XII. 2, XVIII. 2. 

with utor, etc. : X. 2, XXII. i. 

attendant circumstance : X. 3. 

means: X. 3, 5. 

comparison : X. 4, XII. 2. 

cause: X. 5, XII. 2. 

time within which : X. 3, XI. 3. 

with interest: XI. 3, XXI. i. 

separation (with verbs) : XII. 2, 
XXI. 2. 

quality: XIV. 

material (with jio) : XVII. 3. 

accompaniment: XXI. 2. 

source: XXX. 2. 

separation : XXXVI. 5. 

separation (with adverbs) : XXXIX. 
I. 

with confido: XLIX. 2. 

motive: LXX. i. 
abs: I. 

Academia: II. 2, XXXV. 2. 
Academica: LXII. i, LXIII. i. 
accedit: XXXVIII. 3. 
accusative : 

end of motion : II. i, VIII. 2. 

exclamatory : X. i, XVII. 3, XXII. i. 

duration of time : XXX. i. 

with passive verbs of asking : LV. 4. 

cognate (neuter adjectives and pro- 
nouns) : LVI. 2, LXI. I. 



actors : X. 3, XXXVI. 1-2, 4, XXXIX. 

I. 
ad with names of towns : LXV. 2. 
adjectives : 

in per-: X. 5, XLlfl. i. 

agreement: XXX. 2. 

in sub-: XXXIII. i. 
adverbs : 

with sum: I, IV. i, LX. i, LXV. 
1-2. 

formation: III. i. 

comparison: XVII. i, 6. 

curule: X. 3, XXXII. 2, XLVI, 

in trod, 
plebeian: X. 3, LXVI, introd. 
Aegina : LIX. 4. 

aestimatio: LIII. 4, LIV. i, LXX. 2. 
Africa: L, LIIL i. 
ain: XXXIII. i. 

Alexandrinism: XXXVII. 3, LXIV. i. 
aliqui: XL. i. 
alliteration: XIV. 
Allobroges: XII. i. 
alphabet: LXV. i;. 
amabo te ('if you please') : LXV. 2. 
anacoluthon : XXXIX. i, LXX. 7. 
andabata: XLIII. 2. 
antecedent in relative clause : XXXIII. 

2, XXXIX. I, LXXI. 2. 
Antium: VI. 2. 
apparent double negative: XIX. 2, 

XL. I. 
Appian Way : VI. 2, VII, XXIX, 5. 
Argiletum: LX. 2. 
Arpinum : VI. 2, VIII. 2. 
ars: XXXVII. 3. 
Asia Minor: V. i, XXI. i. 
as3mdeton : I, V. i, X. 4, XXXII. i, 

XXXVIII. I, XLV. 5. 
atque ('than') : IX. 2. 
augur: XXX. 2, LVII. 



Baiae : VI. 2, LXV. 2. 
balineum: LII. 



196 



INDEX TO THE NOTES 



197 



bankers: XXIII. 2. 

bath: LXV. i. 

boni ('conservatives'): DC. i, XXIX. 

3, 6-8, XXXIII. 1-3. 
Brundisium: V. 2, XV, XXII. i, 

XXIX, introd., 4, XLDC. i. 
Bruttium: XIII. 
Buthrotum: XXI. i. 

calendar : I, III. 2, V. 2, VI. i, XVII. 3, 

xvm. 3. 

Campanian bill: IX. 2, X. 3-4, 

XXXIII. 1-2. 
Capitoline Hill : XXIX. 5. 
Capua: X. 3. 
Carthage : IV. 3. 
-ce: LIX. 3. 
cedo: LIX. 3. 
censor: XVIII. i. 
certOf eerie: XXII. i. 
change of number in verbs : VII. 
chiasmus: XLIX. 2, LXIII. 2. 
CiUcia: XLV, introd., XLVII. i, 

XLVIII, mtrod. 
clients: LIV. 3. 
codex: XXXII. i. 
coepi: LV. 3. 
collective subject with singular verb: 

IV. 3. LV. 4. 
colloquialisms: III. i, VIII. i, X. 

2-3, XV, XVII. I, 3-5, XXXV. 

I, XLII. 1-2, LXV. I, LXXI. 7. 
comedies: XXXI.4 
comedo: JAIL. 4. 
comitia: 
centuriata: III. i, XXVI, XXIX, 

introd., 4, 6, LXX. 7. 
tHbuta: XIX. i, XLVI, introd. 
comparative absolute : II. i, XII. 2. 
conditions: III. i, VIII. 2, IX. 4, 

X. I, 4-5, XIII, XVII. I, XXII. 

I, XXXV. 2, LIII. 2. 
confio: LIX. i. 

consul: III. i, X. 3, XVIII. i. 
Corcyra: XXXIV. i, LVI, introd. 
Corinth : LIX. 4. 

couches (at meals) : XLV. 4, LXV. i. 
Crater: VI. 2. 
cum . . . turn: XVII. i, XXIV. 3, 

LV. 2. 
Cumae: VI. 2. 
curia HosHUa: XXIII. 2, LXI. 2. 



cursus honorum: III. i, XVIII. i, 

xxxvm. 3. 

Cyzicus : XVI, XIX. 2. 

dative : 

double : I, III. 2, XII. i. 

with adjectives : III. 2, IV. 2, X. 2. 

with compound verbs : IV. 3. 

ethical : VI. i, XXXIV. 2. 

indirect object: VI. i. 

agent: VI. 2, XXIX. i. 

with compounds of sum: DC. 4, 
XVII. 3. 

with special verbs : X. i, XXVII. 2. 

agent, with videor: X. i. 

with consulo: X. i. 

with plaudo: X. 3. 

with passive verbs : X. 3, XVII. 3. 

separation: XIV. 

possession: XVI, XXXV. 2. 

with medeor: XVIII. 2, XXII. i. 

reference: XIX. 2, XXII. i. 

with praesto: XXDC. 4, LVI. 4. 

with obviam: XXIX. 5. 

purpose : XLVI. 4, LXX. 2. 
De Amicitia: IV. 3. 
De Finibus: LXII. i. 
De Lingua Latina: LXIII. i. 
DeOfficiis: LXIX. 2. 
De Re Publica: XLI. i. 
De Senectute: LXXII. 3. 
declamation : LIII. 3. 
decumum: XXX. i. 
delivery of letters : XVII. 5. 
dies, gender: XXXV. i. 
diminutives: XI. i, XVII. 3, XXXVI. 

5, XXXVIII. 3, XLIX. 2. 
double negative : LIV. 2. 
Dyrrachium : V. 2, XXIX, introd., L. 

editorial we: II. 2. 

elections: III. i, XI. 3, XVIII. i, 

XIX. I, XLI. 2. 
elephants : XXXVI. 3. 
emetics: LXV. i. 
CO (in passive) : LXIV. 2. 
Epicureans: XXX. i, XXXVII. 3, 

XLIV. 1-2, LIV. I. 
Epirus: IX. i. 

epistolary tenses : VII, XVI, XVII. 3. 
equites: X. 3. 
essedani: XXXIX. 2, XLIII. 2. 



198 



INDEX TO THE NOTES 



Eumolpidae: II. 2. 

Jabulae Akttanae: XXXVI. 3. 

fabulae praetextae: LXIX. i. 

Jac: XVII. 3. 

fac ut: XX. 2. 

fasti consulares: III. i. 

first periphrastic : IV. 2, VI. 2, VIII. i, 

XVI. 
fore: III. i, IX. 2. 
forts: LXXn. 3. 
Fonniae: VI. 2, VII, VIII. i, L. 
forum : XXIX. 5. 
Forum Appi : VII. 
frequentative verbs : LXX. 3, 7. 
fuerim for sim, etc. : XXVII. i, XLV. 

3- 

genitive : 
objective (with noims) : I, XVII. i. 
quality : II. 2, X. 3. 
epexegetical : II. 2. 
partitive: III. i, V. i, DC. i, 3. 
with causa: IV. 3. 
of value (with interest) : XI. 3, 

XLVIII. I. 
objective (with adjectives) : XVII. 

1, XX. 2. 

predicate: XX. 2, XXX. i. 

with verbs of plenty and want: 

XXVIII, XXIX. 3. 
Umiting: XXIX. 5, XXXIX. i. 
value : XXXV. 2, 4. 
with interest : XXXV. 4. 
with similis: XXXVI. 4. 
with impersonal verbs : LV. 2, LXX. 

4- 
with verbs of accusing : LXVIII. 

with participles : LXXII. 3. 
gerund: XVII. i. 
gerundive : XVII. 5. 

with ad: III. 2. 

with causa: XI. i. 

for present participle passive : XXIX. 
6. 
gladiators: X. 3, XXXII. 2, XLIII. 2. 
Greek nouns: VI. 2, XXXV. 4, LXV. 

2, LXXI. 8. 
gymnasium: II. 2. 

habeo {'keep') : XXXV. 3- 
Haedui : XLHI. 4. 



Herma: II. 2. 

idem (^Ukewise') : XVIII. i. 
immortality : LIX. 6. 
impersonal verbs : LV. 2. 
inceptive verbs: XIX. i, XXV. 
indefinite third person plural: IX. i, 

X. 3. 
indicative : 

with cum: I, IV. 3, XVII. i. 

with ut: in. 2. 

future, in commands: IX. 3, 

XXXV. 4, XLVIII. 2. 
with quod (causal) : XVII. 6. 
with quoad: XXI. i. 

in subordinate clauses in indirect 
discourse : LIX. 2, LXIII. i. 
indirect discourse : II. i, IV. 2-3, V. i, 
IX. 2. See also virtual indirect 
discourse. 
infinitive : 

as subject of verb : VII, LIX. 6. 
exclamatory: X. i, XXIII. 2. 
complementary : XXII. 2, XXIII. 3. 
ingenium: XXXVII. 3. 
inns: XXXV. 3. 
interlocutors: LXIII. i. 
iste: VIII. I. 
istuc: XLV. 4. 

kings: XVIII. i. 

/ and r interchanged :♦ VI. 2. 
Laodicea: XLV, introd., XLVIII, 

introd. 
lawyers: XI. 3. 
lectica: XXXVI. 5. 
legal procedure: LIII. i. See also 

lawyers, quaestiones, praetor. 
letter writing: X. 5, XI. i, XLVII. 3, 

LV. I, LXXL I. 
lex Cassia Terentia: X. 3. 
lex Ovinia: XVIII. i. 
libera legatio : IX. 3. 
licet: XVII. 5, XXII. i, XXIV. 3. 

XXVII. 2, XXXVI. 5, XLUI. I. 
Licinian-Sextian bill : IX. 2. 
litterae: III. i. 
locative: II. i. III. 2. 
ludi: VI. 2, X. 3, XXIX. 6, XXXII. 2, 

XXXVI. I, XLVI. 2, LXIX. I. 
LXX. 6. 



INDEX TO THE NOTES 



199 



Magna Graeda: XIII, XXXVI. i. 

Malta : XIII, XV. 

Manilian Law : IV. 1-2, XXIII. 2. 

manus: XXXVIII. 3. 

manuscripts: XXXII, i. 

Medius fidius: XXXII. i. 

Megara : LIX. 4. 

Megaric marble : II. 2. 

mi for mihi: XXXIV. 2, LX. i. 

mimes: XXXVI. i. 

money : I, XLV. 2, LIII. 4. 

more Romano: XXXVIII, 3, XLII. 3. 

Mimda : LXI. 3. 

munera: XXXII. 2, XLIII. 2. 

Mutina: LXX. 7. 

names: XV, XVII. 6, XXII, introd., 

XXXI. 
Naples: VI. 2. 
ne (asseverative) : XXXII. 2, XXXV. 

3- 
-ne in indirect questions: XXXIV. i, 

LXVIII. 
necesse est: X. 2. 
negative commands: II. 2, XXIII. 3, 

LXXII. 4. 
Neo- Academics : XLIV. i, LXIII. i. 
nisi quod: XVII. 5. 
nisi si: VIII. i, XXIII. i. 
nomenclator: XXIX. 5. 
nominative and infinitive with passive 

verbs of saying : XXIV. 1 . 
nostri, nostrum: XXXVI. 4. 
novus homo: III. 2. 
nimierals: LVI. i, LXV. i. 
nunc ipsum: LVIII. 



officium: IV. 2, XII. i. 
opinor (used parenthetically) 

XVII. 3. 
oportet: XXII. 3, XXXIII. 2. 
opus as predicate : LXVI. 2. 
orbis terrarum: IV. 3. 

paintings : XXXV. 3. 
Palatine HiU : XXIX. 5. 
Pales: VI. 2. 
pantomimes: XXXVI. i. 
papyrus: XXXII. i. 
parataxis: VIII. i. 
parchment: XXXII. i. 



VI. I, 



parilia: VI. 2. 
participle (perfect) : 
with habeo: I. 
as attributive, with noun: DC. 4, 

X. I. 
of deponent verb, with passive 

meaning: XXXV. i. 
peacock : LIII. 3. 
Pentelic marble : II. 2. 
Peripatetic School : LXXI. 3. 
Pharsalus : L, LIII. 2, LV. 3. 
PhiUppi: LXIX. i. 
Philippics: LXXII. i. 
Piraeus : LIX, 4. 
plays: XXXVI. 1-3, LXIX. i. See 

also fabulae AteUanae, fabulae 

praetextae, comedies, mimes. 
pleonasm : II. i, X. 2. 
plus {quam omitted) : XLV. i. 
Pomptine marshes : VII. 
Pontus: LI. 
populares: IV. i, 3. 
porta Capena: XXIX. 5. 
possum: XVIII. 3. 
praetor : X. 3, XXIX. 6. 
prefect: XXXVIIL 3. 
preposition omitted with names of 

towns: II. I. 
prisca virtus Romana: LXI. i. 
proconsul: XLV, introd., 1-2, LV, 

introd., LXVI, introd. 
promulsis: LIV. i. 
propraetor : V. i, XXXVII. 2. 
public library : LXII. i. 
publishing: XXXII. i, LXII. i. 
puns : XLII. 3, LIV. i, LXIX. 4. 
Puteoli : VI. 2. 
Pydna: LXI. i. 

quaesHones: XXIX. 6. 
quaestor: XXIV. i, XXIX. 7. 
quam primum: II. i, VI. i. 
queo: XXXIX. 2. 
qui: 

for aliqui: XXXVI. S- 

interrogative: XLIV. 2. 

•how': LXIL I. 
quis (indefinite) : VI. i, LXIII. i. 
quisquam: IX. i. 
quod: 

causal, with subjunctive: IV. 3, 

xvm. I. 



200 



INDEX TO THE NOTES 



quod: 
as accusative of spedfication : XVII. 

5, XDC I. 
causal, with indicative: XVII. 6. 
restrictive : XVII. 6. 
as substantive: XXII. 2, XXXVI. 

5. 
quodnisi: LXDC. 2. 
quoduUnam: XVII. i. 

reflexive pronoun : XXXIX. i, XLIX, 

2. 

religion: XVII. i, XXIX. 4, 7. 
repetition of antecedent : VIII. i. 
repetition of words: VIII. i, XI. 3, 

XIV, XVII. I, XX. 2, LV. 3. 
respondeo: XLII. 3. 
Rhodes: LXX. 8. 
Rosdan Law : X. 3. 
Rubicon: XLIX. i. 

sagum: XLIII. 2. 

sal. for saltUem: I. 

Samarobriva : XLII. 3. 

sane quant: LIX. i. 

Sardinia: LXIV. 1-2. 

saturae: VI. i. 

Satiu-nalia: LXV. i. 

scazons: LXIV. i. 

sculpture : II. 2, XXXV. 2. 

scurra: LIV. i. 

second periphrastic : X. 3, XIV. 

secondary sequence with ea causa est: 

XVII. 4. 
senate: IV. i, XVIII. i, XXIII. 2, 

XXIX. 4, XXXVII. 2, XLIII. 4, 

XLVII. 2, XLVIII. I, XLtX. I, 

LV. 3, LXI. 2. 
senators: X. 3, XXVI, XLVII. 2. 
sermo coUidianus: XL VI. i. 
sermo plebeius: XVII. 3. 
sermo urbanus: III. i, XLVI. i. 
si . . . sin: III. i, VI. i. 
si minus: XXI. 3, XXX VL 6. 
Sicily: XIII, LIII. i. 
sino with accusative and infinitive: 

XXIII. 3. 
slaves: XVII. 4, XXXI, XXXVIII. 3. 
spectacula: X. 3. 
Stabiae: XXXVI. i. 
Stoics: XXXI. i, XLII. 3, XLIV. 2. 

UII. 2, LXin. I. 



sub-: XLin. I. 
subjimctive : 

potential : I, V. 2. 

with volo: I, V. 2, VII. 

indirect question : I, IV. 3, VII. 

causal, with cum: II. i. 

relative of characteristic: 11. i, 
Vin. I, X. 5. 

purpose (substantive) : III. 2, XVII. 

4-S. 

with quin: IV. 2. 

causal, with quod: IV. 3, XVlll. i. 

result: IV. 3, XVn. i, XXI. i. 

subordinate clause in indirect dis- 
course: IV. 3, XVII. 4, XX. I. 

purpose : VI. 2. 

deliberaUve: VIII. 2, XII. 2, XVII. 

3. 
with quo minus: DC. i, XVII. 2. 
with veUem and cuperem: IX. 4, 

X. s, XII. I. 
with uUnam: IX. 4, X. 2, 5, XIII. 
with verbs of fearing : X. 2-3. XXII. 

3. 
with non quo: XII. i, XXI. i. 
jussive : XVII. 3. 
hortatory: XVII. 3. 
double questions : XVII. 3. 
concessive, with cum: XVIII. i, 

XXXVI. I. 
result (substantive) : XVIII. 2, 

XXVII. I. 
with quoad: XIX. i, XXX. 2. 
with/(wc ut: XIX. i. 
causal, with qui: XXI. i, XXXVI. 

3. 
result, with quam ut: XXIX. i. 
attraction: XXIX. 5, LV. 2, LXX. 

S- 
relative of purpose: XXIX. 7, 

XXXII. I. 
yathfac: XXXII. 2. 
optative: XXXIII. i. 
proviso: XXXVI. 3. 
purpose, with quo: XXXVI. 6, 

LXX. 8. 
withcwm . . . turn: LV. 2, LXXI. i. 
ynth. forsitan: LIX. i. 
with necesse: LIX. 3. 
with quamvis: LXIII. i. 
See also ut. 
sumptuary laws : XXX. a. 



INDEX TO THE NOTES 



20I 



supine in -um: VI. i. 
supplicaUo: XLVII. 2, XLVIII. i. 
syncope: LII. 

Tarentum : XVI, XXXVI. i, XLIV. i, 

LII, introd. 
Tarsus: XLVII. i. 
-te: XLIII. 3. LIX. s- 
Tenedos: XXXVII. 2. 
Thapsus: LIII. 1-2. 
theatres: X. 3, XXIX. 6, XXXVI. i. 
Thessalonica : XUI, XVI, XIX. i. 
Thurii: XIV. 
tramitto: XLIX. i. 
Tres Tabernae : VIL 
tribunes of the plebs : XI. 3, XIX. i, 

XXVII. 2, XLIX. I. 
tribunes (miUtary) : XXXVIU. 3. 
tribunicia potestas: XIX. i. 
triclinium: LXV. i. 
Triumvirate : 
First: VI. i, DC. i, X. 1-3, XI. 2, 

xn. 2, XIII, XIX. I, xxiii. 2, 

XXIX. 6-7, XXXIII. 1-3, 

XXXVI. 4. 
Second: LXDC. 4, LXX. 7. 
Tuscidanae DisputaUones : LIX. 6. 
Tusculum: II. i. 

-um for -orum: XLV. 2, LIX. 4. 
una cum : TV. i, XVn. 5. 
ui: 

for postea quam: V. 2. 

*when': XIX. 2. 



concessive: XXII. 2. 
for utinam: XXXVI. i. 
ut ne in. purpose clauses: XLV. i, 
LVI. 4. 

vd . . . vd: X. I, XLVI. i. 

vdes: LIV. i. 

venationes: XXXVI. i, 3. 

Venusia : LII, introd. 

verbs of feeling used transitively: 

XXIII. 2-3, LIV. I. 
versus (preposition) : LIX. 4. 
Vestal virgins : XXIII. 2. 
Vibo: XIIL 
vicem: LIX. 3. 
villas (Cicero's) : 

at Tusculum: II. i, VI. 2, LII, 
introd., LIX. 

at Formiae : VI. 2. 

at Antium: XXXII. i. 

at Arpinum : XXXV. i . 

at Cumae : XXXIX, introd. 

at Astura : LVII. 

at Puteoli : LXV, introd. 
virtual indirect discourse: IV. 3, 
XVII. 4, XXIV. I, 4, XXVII. 2, 
XXXIII. 2. 
vocative: XV. 
volo with infinitive : XXV. 
wlumen: XXXII. i. 

word order: LV. 4, LXIII. i. 

Zela: LI. 



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